These are as follow: (1) Mewar residency, with headquarters at Udaipur, comprising the states of Udaipur (Mewar), Dungarpur, Partabgarh and Banswara; (2) Jaipur residency, with headquarters at Jaipur, comprising the states of Jaipur and Kishangarh, with the estate of Lawa; (3) Western Rajputana states residency, with headquarters at Jodhpur, comprising the states of Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and Sirohi; (4) Bikanir agency, with headquarters at Bikanir; (5) Alwar agency, with headquarters at Alwar; (6) Eastern Rajputana states agency, with headquarters at Bharatpur, comprising the states of Bharatpur, Dholpur, and Karauli; (7) Haraoti-Tonk agency, with headquarters at Deoli, comprising the states of Tonk and Bundi, with the estate of Shahpura; (8) Kotah-Jhalawar agency, with headquarters at Kotah, comprising the states of Kotah and Jhalawar.
The tract lying to the north-west contains the states of Bikanir, Jaisalmer and Jodhpur.
The climate throughout Rajputana is very dry and hot during the summer; while in the winter it is much colder in the north than in the lower districts, with hard frost and ice on the Bikanir borders.
BIKANIR, a native state of India, in the Rajputana agency, with an area of 23,311 sq.
The principal towns are Bikanir, the capital, Churu, Rajgarh, Ratangarh and Reni.
The city of Bikanir has a railway station.
In the 15th century the territory which now forms the state of Bikanir was occupied by Rajput clans, partly Jats, partly Mahommedans.
In the reign of Akbar the chiefs of Bikanir were esteemed among the most loyal adherents of the Delhi empire, and in 1570 Akbar married a daughter of Kalyan Singh.
Kalyan's son, Rai Singh, who succeeded him in 1571, was one of Akbar's most distinguished generals and the first raja of Bikanir; his daughter married Selim, afterwards the emperor Jahangir.
From this time forward the history of Bikanir was mainly that of the wars with Jodhpur, which raged intermittently throughout the 18th century.
In 1802, during one of these wars, Elphinstone passed through Bikanir on his way to Kabul; and the maharaja, Surat Singh (1788-1828), applied to him for British protection, which was, however, refused.
Ratan Singh, who succeeded his father in 1828, applied in vain in 1830 to the British government for aid against a fresh outbreak of his thakurs; but during the next five years dacoity became so rife on the borders that the government raised a special force to deal with it (the Shakhawati Brigade), and of this for seven years Bikanir contributed part of the cost.
The principal event of his reign was the rebellion of the thakurs in 1883, owing to an attempt to increase the dues payable in lieu of military service; this led to the permanent location at Bikanir of a British political agent.
1880), who succeeded as 21st chief of Bikanir with the approval of the government.
He attended King Edward's coronation in 1902, and accompanied the British army in person in the Chinese campaign of Igoe in command of the Bikanir Camel Corps, which also did good service in Somaliland in 1904.
It has a magnificent palace, which is visible from far across the Bikanir desert; it was built in 1882 by Nawab Sadik Mahommed Khan.
It derives its name from the Bhattis, a wild Rajput clan, who held the country lying between Hariana, Bikanir and Bahawalpur.