The glass industry began in Wheeling in 1821, and there a process was discovered by which in 1864 for soda ash bicarbonate of lime was substituted, and a lime glass was made which was as fine as lead glass; other factors contributing to the localization of the manufacture of glass here are the fine glass sand obtained in the state and the plentiful supply of natural gas for fuel Transportation and Commerce.
In districts where the water is of a " hard nature," that is, contains bicarbonate of lime in solution, the interior of the boiler cylinders, tanks and pipes of a hot water system will become incrusted with a deposit of lime which is gradually precipitated as the water is heated to boiling point.
They have a temperature of 45 6° F., and contain a large proportion of bicarbonate of soda.
The more usual method is to take milling soap, neutralize it with sodium bicarbonate or a mixture of fatty acids, and, after perfuming, it is aerated by mixing the hot soap with air in a specially designed crutcher.
Pure sodium carbonate is prepared by igniting the bicarbonate, and exactly 53 grammes are dissolved in water, forming a strictly normal solution.
All of this is not available, for carbonic acid is present as such in solution, as bicarbonate (of magnesium mainly) and as normal carbonate.
That is, the concentration of H-ions decreases and that of the HO-ions increases; the water becomes more alkaline because the carbonic acid of the bicarbonate has been abstracted by the phytoplankton to the extent that normal carbonate is left.
Lime is transported in solution as sulphate and bicarbonate, both of which salts are soluble to some extent in water.
The water in shallow seas, off the shores of islands or in lagoons, is saturated with calcium bicarbonate and if the amount of carbonic acid in solution be reduced by any means, normal carbonate must be precipitated.
The word "pure" is emphasized because experience shows that the presence in a water of even small proportions of calcium bicarbonate or sulphate prevents its action on lead.
By this means, sodium aluminate is formed; it is then extracted with water and precipitated either by sodium bicarbonate or by passing a current of carbon dioxide through the solution.
Trimethylamine, (CH3)3N, is very similar to dimethylamine, and condenses to a liquid which boils at 3.2-3.8° C. It is usually obtained from "vinasses," the residue obtained from the distillation of beet sugar alcohol, and is used in the manufacture of potassium bicarbonate by the Solvay process, since its hydrochloride is much more soluble than potassium carbonate.
5 cc. per litre at o C. while as a matter of fact the amount absorbed approaches 50 cc. The form of combination is unstable and apparently variable, so that the quantities of free carbonic acid, bicarbonate and normal carbonate are liable to alter.
Ammonia is found in small quantities as the carbonate in the atmosphere, being produced from the putrefaction of nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter; ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in rain-water, whilst ammonium chloride (sal-ammoniac) and ammonium sulphate are found in volcanic districts; and crystals of ammonium bicarbonate have been found in Patagonian guano.
It possesses a strong ammoniacal smell, and on digestion with alcohol the carbamate is dissolved and a residue of ammonium bicarbonate is left; a similar decomposition taking place when the sesquicarbonate is exposed to air.
Ammonium bicarbonate, NH 4 ï¿½HCO 3, is formed as shown above and also by passing carbon dioxide through a solution of the normal compound, when it is deposited as a white powder, which has no smell and is only slightly soluble in water.
The acid carbonate or bicarbonate of soda, NaHCO 3, is produced in the ammonia-soda process for alkali manufacture.
(5) Sodii citro-tartras effervescens, a mixture of sugar, sodium bicarbonate, citric and tartaric acids.
A lotion of sodium bicarbonate is useful to allay itching.
Sodium bicarbonate is one of our most useful gastric sedatives and antacids, relieving pain in hyperchloridia.
Potassium bicarbonate, Khco 3, is obtained when carbonic acid is passed through a cold solution of the ordinary carbonate as long as it is absorbed.
Any silicate present is also converted into bicarbonate with elimination of silica, which must be filtered off.
The bicarbonate forms large monoclinic prisms, permanent in the air.
When alkali is added to aqueous iodine, followed immediately by either soda water or sodium bicarbonate, most of the original iodine is precipitated (R.
It can be estimated quantitatively by mixing a dilute solution with potassium iodide and hydrochloric acid in excess, adding excess of zinc sulphate, neutralizing the excess of free acid with sodium bicarbonate, and determining the amount of free iodine by a standard solution of sodium thiosulphate.
The operation is finished when all the sodium sulphide has been converted into normal sodium carbonate, partly also into acid sodium carbonate (bicarbonate) NaHCO 3; at the same time a precipitate is formed, consisting of ferrous sulphide, alumina and silica, which is removed by another settling tank, and the clear liquor is now ready either for boiling down in a " fishing-pan " for the manufacture of white soda-ash, or for the process of causticizing.
Sometimes they are made, not from soda-ash, but from Leblanc soda-liquor before " finishing " the ash, or from the crude bicarbonate of the ammonia-soda process by prolonged boiling, until nearly half of the carbonic acid has been expelled.
Formerly bicarbonate of soda was made from Leblanc sodacrystals by the action of carbonic acid, but this article is now almost exclusively made in the ammonia-soda process.
There the reaction mentioned above takes place, and Owing to the concentration of the liquid the sodium bicarbonate formed is to a great extent precipitated in the shape of small crystals, forming with the mother-liquor a thin magma.
On the other hand the cooling must not be carried too far, for in this case the crystals of sodium bicarbonate become so fine that the muddy mass is very difficult to filter.
Here a separation takes place between the crystals of sodium bicarbonate and the mother-liquor.
Various forms of apparatus are employed for this treatment of the crude bicarbonate - sometimes semi-circular troughs with mechanical agitators on the principle of the Thelen pan (see above) - all acting on the principle that the escaping ammonia and carbon dioxide must be fully utilized over again.
The leading reaction of this process is the mutual decomposition of ammonium bicarbonate and sodium chloride: NaCI+NH 4 HCO 3 = NaHCO 3 -1-NH 4 C1.
It begins, however, not with ready-made ammonium bicarbonate, but with the substances from which it is formed - ammonia, water and carbon dioxide - which are made to act on sodium chloride.
(5) The Hargreaves-Bird process avoids certain drawbacks attached to other processes, by employing a wire diaphragm and converting the caustic soda as it issues on the other side of this, by means of carbon dioxide, into a mixture of sodium carbonate and bicarbonate, which separates out in the solid state.
The former possesses a uniform temperature of 82° Fahr., and the principal substances in solution are bicarbonate of calcium, bicarbonate of magnesium, chloride of sodium, chloride of magnesium and silica acid.
When the secretion of gastric juice is deficient it may be excited by gastric tonics, such as ten grains of bicarbonate of soda and a drachm of compound tincture of gentian in water shortly before meals, and may be supplemented by the administration of pepsin and hydrochloric acid after meals.
The iron must be in certain soluble conditions, however, and the soluble bicarbonate of the protoxide of chalybeate springs seems most favourable; the hydrocarbonate absorbed by the cells is oxidized, probably thus 2FeCO 3 1-30H 2 +O = Fee (OH)6+2C02.
The preparations of lithium used in medicine are: Lithii Carbonis, dose 2 to 5 grs.; Lithii Citras, dose 5 to io grs.; and Lithii Citras effervescens, a mixture of citric acid, lithium citrate, tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate, dose 60 to 120 grs.
Solution of calcium bicarbonate becomes with gallic acid, on exposure to the air, of a dark blue colour.
It may be obtained electrolytically from solutions of ferrous and magnesium sulphates and sodium bicarbonate, a wrought iron anode and a rotating cathode of copper, thinly silvered and iodized, being employed (S.
Ferrous carbonate, FeCO3, or spathic iron ore, may be obtained as microscopic rhombohedra by adding sodium bicarbonate to ferrous sulphate and heating to 150° for 36 hours.