He allied himself to the Mongols against the advance of the Egyptian sultan; but in 1268 he lost Antioch to Bibars, and when he died in 1275 he was only count of Tripoli.
It was finally captured by Bibars, 1244.
They consented to ally themselves with the ruler of Damascus against the sultan of Egypt; but in the battle of Gaza they were deserted by their allies and heavily defeated by Bibars, the Egyptian general and future Mameluke sultan of Egypt.
The Mamelukes, who are analogous to the janissaries of the Ottoman Turks, were made of sterner and more fanatical stuff; and Bibars, the greatest of these Mamelukes, who had commanded at Gaza in 1244, had been one of the leaders in 1250, and was destined to become sultan in 1260, was the sternest and most fanatical of them all.
His general, a Christian named Kitboga, marched southwards to attack the Mamelukes of Egypt, but he was beaten by Bibars (who in the same year became sultan of Egypt), and Damascus fell into the hands of the Mamelukes.
Against itself, and deprived of allies, the arm of Bibars soon fell with crushing weight.
Already in 1267 St Louis had taken the cross a second time, moved by the news of Bibars' conquests; and though the French baronage, including even Joinville himself, refused to follow the lead of their king, Prince Edward of England imitated his example.
He returned home at the end of 1272, the last of the western crusaders; and thus all the attempts of St Louis and Charles of Anjou, of James of Aragon and Edward of England left Bibars still in possession of all his conquests.
A precarious peace had reigned in the Holy Land since 1272, when Bibars had granted a truce of ten years; but the fall of the great power of Charles of Anjou set free Kala`un the successor of Bibars' son (who reigned little more than two years), to complete the work of the great sultan.
After the visit of the Sultan Bibars (1269) Mecca was governed by an amir dependent on Egypt.
The minister raised his infant son, Ghiyass ed-din Kaikhosrau III., to the throne, and governed the country for ten years longer, till he was entangled in a conspiracy of several amirs, who proposed to expel the Mongols with the aid of the Mameluke sultan of Egypt, Bibars (Beibars or Beybars).
Bibars, therefore, in his turn fell back, leaving Suleiman to the vengeance of the khan, who soon discovered his treason and ordered a barbarous execution.
In 1317 the sultan Bibars endeavoured to convert them to orthodox Islam, and built many mosques, but Ibn Batuta (i.
Before Kotuz had reigned a year he was murdered at Salihia by his lieutenant Bibars (October 23rd, 1260), who was piqued, it is said, at the governorship of Aleppo being with- R ~
Sultan Bibars, who proved to be one of the most competent of the Baliri Mamelukes, made Egypt the centre of the Moslem world by re-establishing in theory the Abbasid caliphate, which had lapsed through the taking of Bagdad by Hulagu, followed by the execution of the caliph.
Bibars recognized the claim of a certain Abul-Qasim Abmed to be the son of Zahir, the 35th Abbasid caliph, and installed him as Commander of the Faithful at Cairo with the title al-Mostansir billh.
Mostansir then proceeded to confer on Bibars the title sultan, ~ and to address to him a homily, explaining his duties, revived.
This document is preserved in the MS. life of Bibars, and translated by G.
This did not prevent Bibars from maintaining his policy of appointing an Abbasid for the~ purpose of conferring legitimacy on himself; but he encouraged no further attempts at re-establishing the Abbasids at Bagdad, and his principle, adopted by successive sultans, was that the caliph should not leave Cairo except when accompanying the sultan on an expedition.
The reign of Bibars was spent largely in successful wars against the Crusaders, from whom he took many cities, notably Safad, Caesarea and Antioch; the Armenians, whose territory he repeatedly invaded, burning their capital Sis; and the Seljukids of Asia Minor.
On the 1st of July 1277 Bibars died, and the events that followed set an example repeatedly followed during the period KaIaa of the Mamelukes.
This MVJIk prince had the singular fortune of reigning three times, ~N~Ir being twice dethroned: he was first installed on the 14th of December 1293, when he was nine years old, and the affairs of the kingdom were undertaken by a cabinet, consisting of a vizier (Alam al-din Sinjar), a viceroy (Kitboga), a war minister (IJusam al-dIn LjIn al-RmI), a prefect of the palace (Rokneddin Bibars Jashengir) and a secretary of state (Rokneddin Bibars Man~rI).
He was dethroned in 1296, and one of the murderers of Khalil, IJusm al-dIn Ljin, son-in-law of the sultan Bibars and formerly governor of Damascus, installed in his palace (November 26th, 1296).
After his murder the deposed sultan Malik al-Nglir, who had been living in retirement at Kerak, was recalled by the army and reinstated as sultan in Cairo (February 7th, 1299), though still only fourteen years of age, so that public affairs were administered not by him, but by Salr the viceroy, and Bibars Jashengir, prefect of the palace.
The amirs Salr and Bibars having usurped the whole of the sultans authority, he, after some futile attempts to free himself of them, under the pretext of pilgrimage to Mecca, retired in March 1309 to Kerak, whence he sent his abdication to Cairo; in consequence of which, on the 5th of April 1309, Bibars Jashengir was proclaimed sultan, with the title Malik al-Mozajar.
Before the year was out the new sultan had been rendered unpopular by the occurrence of a famine, and Malik al-Na~ir was easily able to induce the Syrian amirs to return to his allegiance, in consequence of which Bibars in his turn abdicated, and Malik al-Ng~ir re-entered Cairo as sovereign on the 5th of March 1310.
He soon found the means to execute both Bibars and Salar, while other amirs ~ho had been eminent under the former rgime fled to the Mongols.
692, secretary of state to Bibars I.
It fell at last to the Egyptian, Bibars, in 1268, after a great destruction and slaughter, from which it never revived.
Bibars (Beibars, Baibars), general of the Egyptian sultan Kotuz, met and drove them back; and having murdered his master, became sultan in his stead.
Bibars died in 1277, and in 1291 Acre itself was captured by Khatel son of Kala`un, who thus put a final end to Frankish domination.
The ruins of Petra were an object of curiosity in the middle ages and were visited by the Sultan Bibars of Egypt towards the close of the 13th century.
In vain, three years later, did Abu'l-Qasim Ahmad, a scion of the race of the Abbasids, who had taken refuge in Egypt with Bibars the Mameluke sultan, and who had been proclaimed caliph under the title al-Mostansir billah (" he who seeks help from God"), make an effort to restore a dynasty which was now for ever extinct.
To prevent further attacks from the sea the Mameluke sultan Bibars blocked up the Phatnitic mouth of the Nile (about 1260), razed old Damietta to the ground, and transferred the inhabitants to the site of the modern town.