Santarosa's correspondence was edited by Signor Bianchi, Lettere di Santorre Santarosa (Turin, 1877).
The earliest printed works in Albanian are those of the Catholic missionaries; the first book containing specimens of the language was the Dictionarium Latino-Epiroticum of Bianchi, printed in 1635.
Here in the year 1300 new factions, subdividing the old Guelphs and Ghibellines under the names of Neri and Bianchi, had acquired such force that Boniface VIII., a violently Guelph pope, called in Charles of Valois to pacify the republic and undertake the charge of Italian affairs.
Bianchi, Crivour, p. 118.
Italian action was hastened by news that, in December 1884, an exploring party under Signor Bianchi, royal commissioner for Assab, had been massacred in the Aussa (Danakil) country, an event which aroused in Italy a desire to punish the assassins and to obtain satisfaction for the still unpunished massacre of Signor Giulietti and his companions.
In 1389 the leader of a flagellant band in Italy called the bianchi was burned by order of the pope, and his following dispersed.
In 12 9 5 a signory favourable to the grandi enacted a law attenuating the Ordinamenti, but now the grandi split into two factions, one headed by the Donati, which hoped to The abolish the Ordinamenti, and the other by the Cerchi, which had given up all hope of their abolition; after wards these parties came to be called Neri (Blacks) and Bianchi (Whites).
The pope's attempt to unite the grandi having failed, he summoned Charles of Valois to come to his assistance, promising him the imperial crown; in 1301 Charles entered Italy, and was created by the pope paciaro or peacemaker of Tuscany, with instructions to crush the Bianchi and the popolo and exalt the Neri.
On the 1st of November Charles reached Florence, promising to respect its laws; but he permitted Corso Donati and his friends to attack the Bianchi, and the new podestd,Cante dei Gabrielli of Gubbio, who had come with Charles, punished many of that faction; among those whom he exiled was the poet Dante (1302).
Carutti, Storia della diplomazia della corte di Savoia (7 vols., Rome, 1875, &c.), from 1494; Nicomede Bianchi, Storia della monarchia Piemontese (Turin, 1877), for the period from Victor Amadeus III.
Cappelletti, Storia di Carlo Alberto (Rome, 1891); Nicomede Bianchi, Storia della diplomazia europea in Italia (8 vols., Turin, 1865, &c.), a most important work of a general character, and the same author's Scritti e lettere di Carlo Alberto (Rome, 1879) And his Storia della monarchia piemontese (Turin, 1877); Count S.
Bianchi, Memorie storiche e statutarie di Fondi in Campania (Rome, 1903); T.
During the middle ages Pistoia was at times a dangerous enemy to Florence, and the scene of constant conflicts between the Guelphs and Ghibellines; it was there that the great party struggle took place which resulted in the creation of the Bianchi and Neri factions (see Dante, Inferno, xxiv.
Bianchi, Storia documentata della diplomazia Europea in Italia (8 vols., Turin, 1865-1872); Gentz's correspondence (see GENTZ, F.
San Francesco di Paolo, opposite the royal palace, is an imitation of the Pantheon at Rome by Pietro Bianchi di Lugano (1815-1837), and its dome is one of the boldest in Europe.