In practice, it was held by the Moslem begs or beys (nobles) and agas (landlords), who let it to the peasantry.
The administration of kazas, or cantons, was usually entrusted to the cadis and the holders of the more important fiefs; the sanjaks, or departments, were ruled by alai beys or mir-i-livas (colonels or brigadiers), pashas with one horsetail; the vilayets, or provinces, by beylerbeys or mir-i-mirans (lord of lords), pashas with two horse-tails; these were all originally military officers, who, in addition to their administrative functions, were charged with the duty of mustering and commanding the feudal levies in war time.
In June 1593, with an army of 30,000 men, he laid siege to Sissek; the Austrian and Hungarian levies hurried to its relief; and on the 22nd the Turks were routed with immense slaughter on the banks of the Kulpa, Hassan himself, with many other beys and two of the imperial princes, being among the slain.
The family of Tekke Oglu, domiciled near Perga, though reduced to submission in 1812 by Mahmud II., continued to be a rival power to the Ottoman governor till within the present generation, surviving by many years the fall of the other great Beys of Anatolia.
The government of the Deys lasted till 1705, but vas soon narrowed or overshadowed by the authority of the Beys, whose Beys.
Under Deys and Beys alike Tunisia was essentially a pirate state.
The powers were generally less concerned for the captives than for the acquisition of trading privileges, and the Beys took advantage of the commercial rivalry of England and France to play off the one power against the other.
Besides being a fortress the kasbah formerly contained a palace of the beys, barracks for janissaries and bagnios for the Christian slaves.
Beys' Soap Bubbles, lecture iii.
The last three were governed by beys dependent upon the representative of the Porte resident at Algiers.
These three beys existed till 1830.
If the dey had left, the three beys remained.
He negotiated directly with the bey of Tunis with a view to installing as beys at Oran and Constantine Tunisian princes who recognized the authority of France.
He controlled three beys:- the bey of Titeri in the south, the bey of the east at the suburbs and run away.
He entered Miliana and Medea, where he installed beys of his own choice.
At Enfidaville, where was, as its native name indicates, a palace of the beys of Tunis, there is a large horse-breeding establishment and a much-frequented weekly market.
The edifices raised by the Moorish kings of Spain and the Moslem rulers of India may have been more splendid in their materials, and more elaborate in their details; the houses of the great men of Damascus may be more costly than were those of the Mameluke beys; but for purity of taste and elegance of design both are far excelled by many of the mosques and houses of Cairo.
Much of Kait Beys reign was spent in struggles with Uzun Hasan, prince of Dirbekr, and Shah Siwar, chief of the Dhul-Kndiri Turkomans.
By the 18th century the importance of the pasha was quite superseded by that of the beys, and two offices, those of Sheik al-Balad and Amir al-~ajj, which were held by these ~of thC persons, represented the real headship of the community.
In 1743 Othman Bey, who had governed with wisdom and moderation, was forced to fly from Egypt by the intrigues of two adventurers, Ibrahim and Rilwgn Bey, who, when their scheme had succeeded, began a massacre of beys and others thought to be opposed to them; they then proceeded to govern Egypt jointly, holding the two offices mentioned above in alternate years.
Accordance with secret orders from Constantinople was so far successful that some of the beys were killed.
The date of All Beys victory was 1164 A.H.
In that capacity he executed the murderer of his former master IbrahIm; but the resentment which this act aroused among the beys caused him to leave his post and fly to Syria, where he won the friendship of the governor of Acre, ~Ahir b.
Resuming his office he raised eighteen of his friends to the rank of bey, among them Ibrhim and Murd, who were afterwards at the head of affairs, as well as Mahommed Abul-Dhahab, who was closely connected with the rest of All Beys career.
All, being apprised by his agents at the metropolis of the despatch of this messenger, ordered him to be waylaid and killed; the despatches were seized and read by All before an assembly of the beys, who were assured that the order for execution applied to all alike, and he urged them to fight for their lives.
His proposals were received with enthusiasm by the beys whom be had created.
Reinforced by All Beys ally ~Ahir, he easily took the chief cities, ending with Damascus; but at this point he appears to have entered into secret negotiations with the Porte, by which he undertook to restore Egypt to Ottoman suzerainty.
After All Beys death Egypt became once more a dependency of the Porte, governed by Abul-Dhahab as Sheik al-Balad with the title pasha.
He shortly afterwards received permission from the Porte to invade Syria, with the view of punishing All Beys supporter ~ahir, and left as his deputies in Cairo Ismgil Bey and Ibrahim Bey, who, by deserting All at the battle of Salihia, had brought about his downfall.
After the battle of Ambabah, at which the forces of both Murd Bey and IbrhIm Bey were dispersed, the populace readily plundered the houses of the beys, and a deputation was sent from al-Azhar to Bonaparte to ascertain his intentions; these proved to be a repetition of the terms of his proclamation, and, though the combination of loyalty to the French with loyalty to the sultan was unintelligible, a good understanding was at first established between the invaders and the Egyptians.
At the same time Ysuf Pasha arrested all the beys in Cairo, but was shortly compelled by the British to release them.
A few days later, Ali Pasha Jaz~irli landed at Alexandria with an imperial firm~in constituting him pasha of Egypt, and threatened the beys, who now were virtual niasters of Upper Egypt, as well as of the capital and nearly the whole of Lower Egypt.
The troubles of Egypt were now increased by an insufficient inundation, and great scarcity prevailed, aggravated by the taxation to which the beys were compelled to resort in order to pay the troops; while murder and rapine prevailed in the capital, the riotous soldiery being under little or no control.
It announced that the beys should live peaceably in Egypt, with an.
To this the beys assented, but with considerable misgivings; for they had intercepted letters from Au to the Albanians, endeavouring to alienate them from their side to his own.
The forces lukes and of the beys, with the Albanians, encamped near him All Pasha.
He therefore went to the camp of the beys, and his army was compelled to retire to Syria.
In the hands of the beys Ali Pasha again attempted treachery.
While these scenes were being enacted, al-Alfi was besieging Damanhur, and the other beys were returning towards Cairo, Khorshid laving called them to his assistance: but Mehemet Ali forced them to recreat.
Mehemet Ali now possessed the title of Governor of Egypt, but beyond the walls of Cairo his authority was everywhere disputed by the beys, who were joined by the army of the silhdr of Khorshid; and many Albanians deserted from his ranks.
An attempt was made to ensnare certain of the beys, who were encamped north of Cairo.
On the following morning, these beys, with their Manfelukes, a very numerous body, broke open the gate of the suburb al-Husainia, and gained admittance into the city from the north, through the gate called B~b el-Futl~.
Among them were four beys, one of whom, driven to madness by Mehemet Alls mockery, asked for a drink of water; his hands were untied that he might take the bottle, but he snatched a dagger from one of the soldiers, rushed at the pasha, and fell covered with wounds.
The beys, after this, appear to have despaired of regaining their ascendancy; most of them retreated to Upper Egypt, and an attempt at compromise failed.
At length, in consequence of the remonstrances of the English, and a promise made by al-Alfi of 1500 purses, the Porte consented to reinstate the twenty-four beys and to place al-Alfi at their head; but this measure met with the opposition of Mehemet Ali and the determined resistance of the majority of the Mamelukes, who, rather than have al-AlfI at their head, preferred their present condition; for the enmity of al-Bardisi had not subsided, and he commanded the voice of most of the other beys.
He induced the ulemg to sign a letter, praying the sultan to revoke the command for reinstating the beys, persuaded the chiefs of the Albanian troops to swear allegiance to him, and sent 2000 purses contributed by them to Constantinople.
Al-AlfI was at that time besieging Damanhur, and he gained a signal victory over the pashas troops; but the dissensions of the beys destroyed their last chance of a return to power.
Al-Alfi and his partisans were unable to pay the sum promised to the Porte; Salih Pasha received plenipotentiary powers from Consta,ntinople, in consequence of the letter from the ulema; and, on the condition of Mehemet Alls paying 4000 purses to the Porte, it was decided that he should continue in his post, and the reinstatement of the beys was abandoned.
Their chief hopes of success; and they immediately despatched messengers to his successor and to the other beys, inviting them to Alexandria.
Mehemet Ali, meanwhile, was conducting an expedition against the beys in Upper Egypt, and he had defeated them near Assiut, when he heard of the arrival of the British.