Largely out of the ruins of Nefez Keui (anc. Tavium), by Chapan Oghlu, the founder of a powerful Dere Bey family.
Ali, the capitan pasha, was commander-in-chief, and he had with him Chulouk Bey of Alexandria, commonly called Scirocco, and Uluch Ali, dey of Algiers.
He courageously aided the escape of Youssouff, pursued by the soldiers of the bey, of whom he was one of the officers, for violation of the seraglio law.
The remarkable revolution associated with the names of Niazi Bey and Enver Bey, the young Turk leaders, and the Committee of Union and Progress is described elsewhere (see Turkey: History); here it must suffice to say that Abd-ul-Hamid, on learning of the threat of the Salonica troops to march on Constantinople (July 2 3), at once capitulated.
Roustan therefore hastened to extort from the bey concessions calculated to neutralize the advantages which Italy had hoped to secure by the possession of the Tunis- Goletta line, and at the same time the French government prepared at Toulon an expeditionary corps for the occupation of the Regency.
The Kroumir tribe was reported to have attacked a French force on the Algerian border, and on the 9th of April Roustan informed the bey of Tunis that France would chastise the assailants.
Founded, in 1262, by the Hungarian General Cotroman, under the name of Bosnavar or Vrhbosna, Serajevo was enlarged by Husref Bey two centuries later, and takes its name from the palace (Turkish, serai), which he founded.
1683), Turkish vizier, surnamed "Merzifunli," was a son of Uruj Bey, a notable Sipahi of Merzifun (Marsovan), and brother-in-law to Ahmed Kuprili, whom he succeeded as grand vizier in 1676, after having for some years held the office of Kaimmakam or locum tenens.
He succeeded his father Da'ud as ruler of Khorasan in 1059, and his uncle Togrul Bey as sultan of Oran in 1063, and thus became sole monarch of Persia from the river Oxus to the Tigris.
Louis had been led to think that the bey of Tunis might be converted, and in that hope he resolved to begin this eighth and last of the Crusades by an expedition to Tunis.
Negotiating in the spirit of a Frederick II., and acting not as a Crusader but as a king of Sicily, he not only wrested a large indemnity from the bey for himself and the new king of France, but also secured a large annual tribute for his Sicilian exchequer.
Wilm, Bey., 1883, 16, p. 1524.
The central square court, of moderate dimensions, with halls and great recesses, is followed in other examples in Cairo, among which the Tomb Mosque of Kait-Bey (c. A.D.
- Mosque-tomb of Sultan Kait-Bey, Cairo.
Of the catacombs, are many fine houses and gardens (Moharrem Bey quarter), stretching eastward for a considerable distance, favourite residences of wealthy citizens.
Mahmud Bey el Fallaki, Mimoire sur l'antique Alexandrie (1872); T.
For the catacombs of Alexandria, Neroutsos Bey, L'Ancienne Alexandrie, may be consulted in addition to De Rossi's article mentioned in the text.
The Turkish historian, Kutchi Bey, attributes the origin of the decline of the empire to the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566), when the conversion of many emiriye lands into vakufs was effected, and the system of farming out revenues first introduced.
In his 1910 budget speech the minister of finance, Javid Bey, demanded authority to create a new aluminium coinage of 5, 10, 20 and 40 para pieces, of which he would issue, in the course of three years, a nominal amount of £T1,000,000 to those provinces in which there was a great scarcity of small coins.
Belin, Essais sur l'histoire economique de la Turquie (Paris, 1865); Aristarchi Bey, Legislation ottomane (8 vols., Constantinople, 1868-1876); R.
Young, Corps de droit ottoman (7 vols., Oxford, 1905-1906);1906); Pech, Manuel des societes anonymes fonctionnant en Turquie (Paris, 1906); Alexis Bey, Statistique des principaux resultats des chemins de fer de l'empire ottoman (Constantinople, 1909).
Defence: Djevad Bey, Etat militaire ottoman (Paris, 1885); H.
Though Yahsha Bey, grandson of Mahommed Karaman Oghlu, had declared himself the successor of the Seljukian sultans, the princes of Aidin, Sarukhan, Menteshe, Kermian, Hamid, Tekke and Karassi declined to recognize his authority, and considered themselves independent, each in his own dominions.
In the same year Bey Shehr and other portions of the Hamid principality were acquired by purchase from their ruler Hussein Bey, as the Karamanian princes were beginning to cast covetous eyes on them; but the Karamanians were unwilling to resign their claims to be heirs of the Seljukian sultans, and not until the reign of Mahommed II.
Ali Bey, the prince at this time, took advantage of Murad's absence in Europe to declare war against him; but the Ottoman ruler returning crushed him at the battle of Konia.
These princes were viceroys of Kermian and Karassi respectively; the youngest son, Sauji Bey, governed at Brusa during his father's absence.
Led away by evil counsellors, Sauji Bey plotted with Andronicus, son of the emperor, to dethrone their respective fathers.
Of the same treaty, the Russian government was empowered to build, in addition to the embassy chapel " in the street named Bey Oglu."
Most of its members were military officers, prominent among them being Majors Enver Bey and Niazi Bey, who directed the propaganda in Albania and Macedonia.
They The struck their first blow on the 22nd of July 1908, when Niazi Bey and his troops raised the standard of 1908.
On the 23rd the committee of union and progress, under the presidency of Enver Bey, proclaimed the constitution in Salonica, while the second and third army corps threatened to march on Constantinople if the sultan refused to obey the proclamation.
The chief poets of the transition are Fazil Bey, Wasif, notable for his not altogether unhappy attempt to write verses in the spoken language of the capital, `Izzet Molla, Pertev Pasha, `Akif Pasha, and the poetesses Fitnet and Leyla.
Among writers of this school who have won distinction are Ziya Pasha, Jevdet Pasha, the statesman and historian, Ekrem Bey, the author of a beautiful series of miscellaneous poems, Zemzema, Hamid Bey, who holds the first place among Ottoman dramatists, and Kemal Bey (d.
ANTOINE BARTHELEMY CLOT (1793-1868), French physician, known as Clot Bey, was born at Grenoble on the 7th of November 1793, and graduated in medicine and surgery at Montpellier.
In 1832 Mehemet Ali gave him the dignity of bey without requiring him to abjure his religion; and in 1836 he received the rank of general, and was appointed head of the medical administration of the country.
Hussein Hilmi, he, with Niazi Bey, imported the flag of revolution in the Macedonian moun - tains, originally with the object of restoring the constitution of 1876, which had been disregarded by 'Abdul Hamid, but also to save himself from a threatened arrest.
In the south he was threatened by the dangerous rivalry of Kait Bey, the Mameluke sultan of Egypt, who had extended his power northwards as far as Tarsus and Adana.
It contains several small lakes, and two of large size, Bey-Sheher Lake, the ancient Karalis, and the double lake now called the Egerdir Geul, of which the ancient name was Limnai.
The first explorer to enter the sacred Hejaz with a definite scientific object was the Spaniard, Badia y aeblich, who, under the name of Ali Bey and claiming to be the last representative of the Abbasid Caliphs, arrived at Jidda in 1807, and performed the pilgrimage to Mecca.
In the marshy lake near Mater (north Tunisia), round the mountain island of Jebel Ashkel, is a herd of over 50 buffaloes; these are said to resemble the domestic (Indian) buffalo of the Levant and Italy, and to have their origin in a gift of domestic buffaloes from a former king of Naples to a bey or dey of Tunis.
[An allied form with gigantic horns is found fossil in Algeria.] They are the private property of the bey, who very properly preserves them.
The civil list paid to the Bey of Tunis amounts to £36,000 per annum, and the endowment of the princes and princesses of the beylical family to £31,200 a year more.
From a native's point of view Tunisia still appears to be governed by the Bey of Tunis, his Arab ministers and his Arab officials, the French only exercising an indirect - though a very real - control over the indigenous population (Mahommedans and Jews).
From 1631 to 1702 the office of Bey was hereditary in the descendants of Mural, a Corsican renegade, and their rivalry with the Deys and internal dissensions kept the country in constant disorder.
'Ali, the son of a Cretan renegade, was proclaimed sovereign by the troops under the title of "Bey," and, being a prince of energy and ability, was able to establish the hereditary sovereignty, which has lasted without change of dynasty to the present time.2 Frequent wars with Algiers form the chief incidents in the internal history of Tunisia under the Beys.
The release of all Christian slaves was not effected till after the bombardment of Algiers; and the definite abandonment of piracy may be dated from the presentation to the Bey in 1819 of a collective note of the powers assembled at Aix-la-Chapelle.
Es Sadok, the reigning Bey at the time of the French occupation, died in October 2882, and was succeeded by his brother 'Ali IV.
The French began to regard the dominions of the Bey as a natural adjunct to Algeria, but after the Crimean War Turkish rights over the regency of Tunis were revived.
After the Franco-German War the embarrassed Bey turned towards Great Britain for advice, and a British protectorate - suggested by the proximity of Malta - was not an impossibility under the remarkable influence of the celebrated Sir Richard Wood, British diplomatic agent at the court of Tunis from 1855 to 1879.
The movement was checked and Selim Bey was deported to the coast.