Inland the Malays live by M o e, o preference on the banks of rivers, building houses on piles some feet from the ground, and planting groves of coco-nut, betel-nut, sugar-palm and fruit-trees around their dwellings.
The khiao were invested by a gold dish, betel-box, spittoon and teapot, which were sent from Bangkok and returned at their death or deposition.
His nose is not only the flattest, but also the smallest among the IndoChinese; his eyes are rarely oblique; his mouth is large and his lips thick; his teeth are blackened and his gums destroyed by the constant use of the betel-nut, the areca-nut and lime.
Clay-pipes may also give rise to cancer of lips in males in England, while cancer of the mouth of both sexes is common in India where chewing a mixture of betel leaves, areca-nut, tobacco and slaked lime is the usual practice.
The great bulk of the silver work is in the form of bowls of different sizes, in shape something like the lower half of a barrel, only more convex, of betel boxes, cups and small boxes for lime.
Among the principal goods dealt with are tea, silk, opium, sugar, flax, salt, earthenware, oil, amber, cotton and cotton goods, sandal-wood, ivory, betel, vegetables, live stock and granite.
Betel, connected with "beat") comes "beetle" in the sense of a mallet, and the "beetling-machine," which subjects fabrics to a hammering process.
Among the chief productions of the plains are rice (the staple export of the country); pepper (chiefly from Chantabun); sirih, sago, sugar-cane, coco-nut and betel, Palmyra or sugar and attap palms; many forms of banana and other fruit, such as durian, orange-pommelo, guava, bread-fruit, mango, jack fruit, pine-apple, custard-apple and mangosteen.
The lips are usually deep red and the teeth stained black from the habit of betel-chewing.
The name betel is applied to two different plants, which in the East are very closely associated in the purposes to which they are applied.
The betel nut is the fruit of the Areca or betel palm, Areca Catechu, and the betel leaf is the produce of the betel vine or pan, Chavica Betel, a plant allied to that which yields black pepper.
The chief purpose for which betel nuts are cultivated and collected is for use as a masticatory, - their use in this form being so widespread among Oriental nations that it is estimated that onetenth of the whole human family indulge in betel chewing.
When chewed a small piece is wrapped up in a leaf of the betel vine or pan, with a pellet of shell lime or chunam; and in some cases a little cardamom, turmeric or other aromatic is added.
Among the Orientals betel is offered on ceremonial visits in the same manner as wine is produced on similar occasions by Europeans.
Betel nuts are further used as a source of catechu, which is procured by boiling the nuts in water.
Betel nuts have been used by turners for ornamental purposes, and for coat buttons on account of the beauty of their structure.
The nuts of other species of Areca are used by the poorer classes in the East as substitutes for the genuine betel nut.
The alkaloid arecaidine, C7H11N02, occurs in areca or betel nuts, together with three other alkaloids: arecoline, C$H13N02, guvacine, C 6 H 9 NO 2, and arecaine, C1H11N02.
Arecoline is an oil, and the physiological action of the betel nut is alone due to this substance.
Guvacine, named from "guvaca," an Indian designation of the betel palm, forms white crystals.
Rice, areca-nuts, and betel-vine leaf are the chief agricultural products.
Pan or betel-leaf is grown by a special caste in most parts of the country.
The betel-nut or areca palm is chiefly grown in certain favoured localities, such as the deltaic districts of Bengal and the highlands of southern India.
Besides betel-nut (Areca Catechu), the palms of India include the coco-nut (Cocos nucifera), the bastard date (Phoenix sylvestris), the palmyra (Borassus flabellifer), and the true date (Phoenix dactylifera).
Many of the roots and vegetables of Europe have been introduced, as well as some of those peculiar to the tropics, including maize, millet, yams, manioc, dhol, gram, &c. Small quantities of tea, rice and sago, have been grown, as well as many of the spices (cloves, nutmeg, ginger, pepper and allspice),' and also cotton, indigo, betel, camphor, turmeric and vanilla.
The natives chew betel nuts instead of tobacco, and to the production of these nuts they devote more than 60,000 acres.
Gutta-percha (getah percha in the vernacular), camphor, cinnamon, cloves, nutmegs, gambir and betel, or areca-nuts, are all produced in the island; most of the tropical fruits flourish, including the much-admired but, to the uninitiated, most evil-smelling durian, a large fruit with an exceedingly strong outer covering composed of stout pyramidal spikes, which grows upon the branches of a tall tree and occasionally in falling inflicts considerable injuries upon passers-by.
Gold is found in the central part; and sugar, coco-nuts, betel-nuts, birds' nests, and agar agar, or sea vegetable, are among the other products of the island.
The villages, which are always walled round by groves of bamboos and betel-nut palms, have often a very striking appearance; and Backergunje has many beauties of detail which strike a traveller in passing through the country.