Gorchakov hoped to utilize the complications in such a way as to recover, without war, the portion of Bessarabia ceded by the treaty of Paris, but he soon lost control of events, and the Slavophil agitation produced the Russo-Turkish campaign of 1877-7 8.
He had the satisfaction of seeing the lost portion of Bessarabia restored to his country by the Berlin treaty, but at the cost of greater sacrifices than he anticipated.
It is only in the S.W., where spurs of the Carpathians enter the governments of Volhynia, Podolia and Bessarabia, that ridges reaching 1 100 ft.
Finally, in the S.E., towards the Caspian, on the slopes of the southern Urals and the plateau of Obshchiy Syrt, as also in the interior of the Crimea, and in several parts of Bessarabia, there are large tracts of real desert, buried under coarse sand and devoid of vegetation.
In Kovno, Vilna, Mogilev, Grodno, Volhynia, Podolia, Minsk, Vitebsk, Kiev, Bessarabia and Kherson, they constitute, on the average, 12 to 172% of the population, while in the cities and towns of these governments they reach 30 to 59% of the population.
The Rumanians (Moldavians) inhabit the governments of Bessarabia, Podolia, Kherson and Ekaterinoslay.
In Bessarabia they constitute from one-fourth to three-fourths of the population of certain districts, and nearly 50% of the entire population of the government.
On the whole the Novorossian governments (Bessarabia, Kherson, Ekaterinoslav and Taurida) exhibit the greatest variety of population.
Beetroot (6-8 million tons annually) for sugar is especially cultivated in Poland, the governments of Kiev, Podolia, Volhynia, Kharkov, Bessarabia and Kherson.
(in Bessarabia, Crimea, Don Cossacks.
It was intended that Russia should take what remained of the northern coast of the Black Sea, Austria should annex the Turkish provinces contiguous to her territory, the Danubian principalities and Bessarabia should be formed into an independent kingdom called Dacia, the Turks should be expelled from Europe, the Byzantine empire should be resuscitated, and the grand-duke Constantine, second son of the Russian heir-apparent, should be placed on the throne of the Palaeologi.
Had the tsar been satisfied with this important success, which enabled him to rebuild Sevastopol and construct a Black Sea fleet, his reign might have been a peaceful and prosperous one, but he tried to recover the remainder of what - had been lost by the Crimean War, the province of Turkish Bessarabia and predominant influence in Turkey.
18 77-7 8, which ended in disappointment Though the campaign enabled him to recover Bessarabia at the expense of his Rumanian ally, it did not increase Russian prestige in the East, because the Russian army was repeatedly repulsed by the Turks, and when at last it reached Constantinople, it was prevented from entering the city by the threatening attitude of England and Austria.
IZMAIL, or Ismail, a town of Russia, in the government of Bessarabia, on the left bank of the Kilia branch of the Danube, 35 m.
And S., Bessarabia on the S.W., and Galicia (Austria) on the W., from which it is separated by the Zbrucz, or Rodvocha, a tributary of th° Dniester.
Two large rivers, which numerous tributaries, drain the government - the Dniester, which forms its boundary with Bessarabia and is navigable throughout its length, and the Bug, which flows almost parallel to the former in a higher, sometimes swampy, valley, and is interrupted at several places by rapids.
Certain governments-Moscow, Kief, Volhynia, Bessarabia, the Crimea, &c.-have been published on a scale of 1: 24,000, while Finland, as far as 61° N., was re-surveyed in 1870-1895, and a map on a scale of 1:42,000 is approaching completion.
It was not, however, till September that the fall of Khotin in Bessarabia marked the first serious Russian success.
Bessarabia, with the fortresses of Akkerman, Izmail and Kilia, was restored to Turkey.
Moldavia, again, ever since the 11th century, had been claimed by the Magyars as forming, along with Bessarabia and the Bukowina, a portion of the semi-mythical Etelkdz, the original seat of the Magyars before they occupied modern Hungary.
SOROKI, a town of south Russia, in the government of Bessarabia, 81 m.
Byelgorod, "white town"), a town, formerly a fortress, of south-west Russia, in the government of Bessarabia, situated on the right bank of the estuary (liman) of the Dniester, 1 2 m.
It undoubtedly stands in close connexion with the name of the province of Bessarabia, which oriental chroniclers gave in olden times to the whole of Walachia.
KISHINEV (Kishlanow of the Moldavians),a town of south-west Russia, capital of the government of Bessarabia, situated on the right bank of the Byk, a tributary of the Dniester, and on the railway between Odessa and Jassy in Rumania, 120 m.
Kishinev is the seat of the archbishop of Bessarabia, and has a cathedral, an ecclesiastical seminary with Boo students, a college, and a gardening school, a museum, a public library, a botanic garden, and a sanatorium with sulphur springs.
No doubt he was waiting for an opportunity of recovering the portion of Bessarabia which had been ceded by the treaty of Paris, and he perceived in the disturbed state of Eastern Europe a possibility of obtaining the desired rectification of frontier, but he hoped to effect his purpose by diplomatic means in conjunction with Austria.
Apart from their colonies in Bessarabia and elsewhere, they may be reckoned at 4,400,000.
Only a portion of the widely-spread Ruman or Vlach race, which extends over a great part of Transylvania, south Hungary and Bessarabia, as well as the Rumanian kingdom, falls within the limits of the Peninsula.
The Montenegrin frontier laid down at San Stefano was considerably curtailed, Dulcigno, the district north-east of the Tara, and other territories being restored to Turkey; in addition to Nish, Servia received the districts of Pirot and Vranya on the east instead of the Ibar valley on the west; the Dobrudja, somewhat enlarged, was ceded to Rumania' which surrendered southern Bessarabia to Russia.
BENDER (more correctly Bendery), a town of Russia, in the government of Bessarabia, on the right bank of the Dniester, 37 m.
2 In1824-1825an outbreak took place at Tutchkoff in Bessarabia; the town was strictly isolated by a military cordon and the disease did not spread.
Moldavia, Wallachia and Bessarabia were widely affected; the disease broke out also in Odessa and the Crimea, and isolated cases occurred in Transylvania.
The most northerly points reached by the plague were near Czernowitz on the frontier of Bessarabia and Bukowina, and its limitation was as before attributed to the Russian and Austrian military cordons.
Alexander [Alexandru] Sturdza (1791-18 J4), Russian publicist and diplomatist, was a member of the same family, born in Bessarabia and educated in Germany.
BESSARABIA, a government of south-west Russia, separated on the W.
Down the Dniester come timber and wooden wares from Galicia, and grain and wool from Bessarabia itself.
During the early centuries of the Christian era Bessarabia, being the key to one of the approaches towards the Byzantine empire, was invaded by many successive races.
In the 13th century Bessarabia was overrun by the irresistible Mongols under the leadership of Batu, grandson of Jenghiz Khan.
In 1367 Bessarabia was subdued and annexed by the ruling prince of Moldavia.
See Nakko, History of Bessarabia, in Russian (1873).
Besides the junctions at Suczawa and Verciorova, the Rumania system meets the Hungarian through the Gyimes, Rothenthurm and Vulkan Passes; the Russian by lines from Jassy and Galatz to Kishinev in Bessarabia; the Bulgarian and Servian by means of numerous] ferries.
It in circa cluded the Carpathian region of Bukovina, literally the beechwood, " where lay Sereth and Suciava (Suczawa), the earliest residences of the voivodes, the maritime district of Budzak (the later Bessarabia), with Kilia, Byelgorod and the left bank of the lower Danube from Galatz to the Sulina mouth.
Bessarabia had been detached from the rest of the principality and placed under the direct control of the military authorities.
By the peace of Bucharest, however, in 1812, the principalities were restored to the sultan under the former conditions, with the exception of Bessarabia, which was ceded to the tsar.
This had been strengthened by the hattisherif of 1802; while the treaties of 1812, 1826 and 1829 had respectively yielded up Bessarabia, the Sulina mouth of the Danube and the St George mouth to the tsar.
A strip of southern Bessarabia was restored to Moldavia, so as to push back he Russian frontier from the Danube mouth.
On the 29th of January the Rumanian agent at St Petersburg was officially informed of the intention of the Russian government to regain posses sion of the Rumanian portion of Bessarabia, i.e.
Bratianu and Cogalniceanu were sent to Berlin to endeavour to prevail on the representatives of the Powers there assembled in June 1878 to veto the cession of Bessarabia to Russia; but the Rumanian delegates were not permitted to attend the sittings of the congress until the Powers had decided in favour of the Russian claim.
" The Rumanians submitted reluctantly to the retrocession of Bessarabia; and the Dobrudja was occupied by Rumanian troops on the 26th of November 1878.
The so-called Daco-Rumanian, spoken by the vast majority of Rumans over the whole of Rumania, in Transylvania, Bukovina, the Banat, Bessarabia, and some districts of Servia and Bulgaria bordering on the Danube.
Important studies on the separate dialects of Moldavia, Walachi, the Dobrudja, Bessarabia, Bukovina, the Banat, Macedonia, Istria, &c., have been published by G.
After 1727 Rumanian was recognized as the language of the law-courts, and through the annexation of Bukovina by Austria (1774) and of Bessarabia by Russia (1812), codes for the civil and political administration of those provinces were drawn up in Rumanian, either in accordance with the established law of the land or in consonance with the laws of Austria and Russia.
By the treaty of Berlin, in 1878, the Russians rewarded their Rumanian allies with this land of mountains, fens and barren steppes, peopled by Turks, Bulgarians, Tatars, Jews and other aliens; while, to add to the indignation of Rumania, they annexed instead the fertile country of Bessarabia, largely inhabited by Rumans.
Odessa is the real capital, intellectual and commercial, of so-called Novorossia, or New Russia, which includes the governments of Bessarabia and Kherson.
KHOTIN, or Khoteen (variously written Khochim, Choczim, and Chocim), a fortified town of South Russia, in the government of Bessarabia, in 48° 30' N.
It finally passed to Russia with Bessarabia in 1812 by the peace of Bucharest.
When pressed by the papal legate and the Austrian envoys to co-operate at the head of all the forces of the league, he first demanded that in case of success Moldavia, Walachia and Bessarabia should fall to Poland, and that she should in the meantime hold Olmutz and Breslau as guarantees.
He penetrated to the plains of Bessarabia, where his retreat was cut off and he was forced to surrender.
After peace with Russia had been concluded, Gordon was attached to an international commission appointed to delimit the new boundary, as fixed by treaty, between Russia and Turkey in Bessarabia; and on the conclusion of this work he was ordered to Asia Minor on similar duty, with reference to the eastern boundary between the two countries.
Jassy communicates by rail with Galatz on the Danube, Kishinev in Bessarabia, and Czernowitz in Bukowina.