The earliest known French romance of Alexander, by Alberic of Besancon (or more properly Briancon), was, until the discovery of a fragment of ioq lines at Florence in 1852, known only through the German adaptation by Lamprecht the preacher, who wrote towards the end of the 12th century, and by the version made by a Poitevin poet named Simon in decasyllabic lines.
The Jewish parishes, called synagogues, are grouped into departmental consistories (Paris, Bordeaux, Nancy, Marseilles, Bayonne, Lille, Vesoul, Besancon and three in Algeria).
(Besancon) consist of three divisions each, and the XIX.
There are 2 faculties of Protestant theology (Paris and Montauban); 12 faculties of law (Paris, Aix, Bordeaux, Caen, Grenoble, Lille, Lyons, Montpellier, Nancy, Poitiers, Rennes, Toulouse); 3 faculties of medicine (Paris, Montpellier and Nancy), and 4 joint faculties of medicine and pharmacy (Bordeaux, Lille, Lyons, Toulouse); 15 faculties of sciences (Paris, Besancon, Bor~ deaux, Caen, Clermont, Dijon, Grenoble, Lille, Lyons, Marseilles, Montpellier, Nancy, Poitiers, Rennes, Toulouse); 15 faculties of letters (at the same towns, substituting Aix for Marseilles).
ANTOINE PERRENOT GRANVELLA, CARDINAL DE (1517-1586), one of the ablest and most influential of the princes of the church during the great political and ecclesiastical movements which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantism in Europe, was born on the 20th of August 1517 at Besancon, where his father, Nicolas Perrenot de Granvella (1484-1550), who afterwards became chancellor of the empire under Charles V., was practising as a lawyer.
On the completion of his studies in law at Padua and in divinity at Louvain, Antoine held a canonry at Besancon, but he was promoted to the bishopric of Arras when barely twenty-three (1J40).
In the same year he was made archbishop of Besancon, but meanwhile he had been stricken with a lingering disease; he was never enthroned, but died at Madrid on the 21st of September 1586.
His body was removed to Besancon, where his father had been buried.
The collected works of Suarez have been printed at Mainz and Lyons (1630), at Venice (1740-1751), at Besancon (1856-1862) and in the collection of the Abbe Migne.
Jacques Courtois was born at St Hippolyte, near Besancon, in 1621.
In 1844, having graduated as doctor of medicine and doctor of science, he was appointed to organize the new faculty of science at Besancon, where he acted as dean and professor of chemistry from 1845 to 1851.
BESANCON, a city of eastern France, capital of the department of Doubs, 76 m.
The hotel de ville dates from the 16th century, to which period many of the old mansions of Besancon also belong.
The Roman remains at Besancon are of great archaeological value.
Besancon is important as the seat of an archbishopric, a court of appeal and a court of assizes, as centre of an academie (educational division), as seat of a prefect and as headquarters of the VIIth army corps.
The chief industry of Besancon is watchand clock-making, introduced from the district of Neuchatel at the end of the 18th century.
There is trade in agricultural produce, wine, metals, &c. The canal from the Rhone to the Rhine passes under the citadel by way of a tunnel, and the port of Besancon has considerable trade in coal, sand, &c.
As a fortress Besancon forms one of a group which includes Dijon, Langres and Belfort; these are designed to secure Franche Comte and to cover a field army operating on the left flank of a German army of invasion.
The latter completely encloses a large area of ground in a semicircle of which Besancon itself is the centre, and the whole of the newer works taken together form an irregular ellipse of which the major axis, lying north-east by south-west, is formed by the Doubs.
Besancon is a place of great antiquity.
Castan, Besancon et ses environs (Besancon, 1887); A.
Guenard, Besancon, description historique (Besancon, 1860).
Till it reaches Besancon which lies on a peninsula formed by the river, the Doubs passes no town of importance except Pontarlier.
Some distance below Besancon it enters the department of Jura, passes Dole, and leaving the region of hill and mountain, issues into a wide plain.
The king's part in the campaign was, as usual, a war of sieges; an army under his personal command overran Franche-Comte in six weeks, and Louis, aided by the genius of Vauban, reduced Besancon in nine days.
Setting out shortly after Christmas, he had a meeting with abbot Hugo of Cluny at Besancon, where he was joined by the young monk Hildebrand, who afterwards became Pope Gregory VII.; arriving in pilgrim garb at Rome in the following February, he was received with much cordiality, and at his consecration assumed the name of Leo IX.
An interest in Latin literature lived longest in Gaul, where schools of learning flourished as early as the 1st century at Autun, Lyons, Toulouse, Nimes, Vienne, Narbonne and Marseilles; and, from the 3rd century onwards, at Trier, Poitiers, Besancon and Bordeaux.
Charles received a portion of the kingdom of Lothair afterwards called Lorraine, extending from the mouths of the Rhine to Toul, together with the town of Besancon, the Lyonnais, the Viennais, the Vivarais, and the Uzege, i.e.
He at once demanded a conference, which Ariovistus refused, and on hearing that fresh swarms were crossing the Rhine, marched with all haste to Vesontio (Besancon) and thence by way of Belfort into the plain of Alsace, where he gained a decisive victory over the Germans, of whom only a few (including Ariovistus) reached the right bank of the Rhine in safety.
ALFRED NICOLAS RAMBAUD (1842-1905), French historian, was born at Besancon on the 2nd of July 1842.
A triumphal arch at Vesontio (Besancon), which in return for this service was made a colony, possibly commemorates this victory.
The codex Vesontinus, formerly at Besancon (11th century), has been divided into three portions, now in Rome, Paris and Leiden respectively, while there is also a transcript of the whole of this MS. at Leiden.
JEAN JOSEPH ANTOINE COURVOISIER (1775-1835), French magistrate and politician, was born at Besancon on the 30th of November 1775.
In 1801, under the Consulate, he returned to France and established himself as an advocate at Besancon, being appointed conseiller-auditeur to the court of appeal there in 1808.
Their loyalty is well illustrated by the famous scene at Besancon in October 1157.
When the Revolution began he became leader of the Jacobin party in Besancon, and when a regiment of volunteers of the department of the Gard marched through the city he was elected lieutenant-colonel.
The fortifications of Epinal are connected to the southward with Belfort, Dijon and Besancon, by the fortified line of the Moselle, and north of it lies the unfortified zone called the Trouee d'Epinal, a gap designedly left open to the invaders between Epinal and Toul, another great fortress which is itself connected by the Meuse forts d'arret with Verdun and the places of the north-east.
Joining the battalion of Besancon, he took part in the political events of that year, and in 1791 went to the army of the Upper Rhine with a volunteer battalion.
He survived the retreat, but his health was so broken that he retired to his native town of Besancon for a time.
To an abject submission, after which Frederick received the homage of the Burgundian nobles at a diet held at Besancon in October 1157, which was marked by a quarrel between pope and emperor.
Though they defeated Vindex and his Celtic levies at Vesontio (Besancon), their next step was to break the statues of Nero and offer the imperial purple to their own commander Virginius Rufus.
Besancon and Nancy.
Hugo (1773-1828), a distinguished soldier in Napoleon's service, was born at Besancon on the 26th of February 1802.
He took part in the principal events of the reign, negotiated the treaty of Lyons with the duke of Savoy 2 Jean de Meun's translation formed the basis of a rhymed version (1290) by Jean Priorat of Besancon, Li abreyance de l'ordre de chevalerie.
PIERRE JOSEPH PROUDHON (1809-1865), French socialist and political writer, was born on the r5th of January 1809 at Besancon, France, the native place also of the socialist Fourier.
His famous answer to this question, "La propriete, c'est le vol".(property is theft), naturally did not please the academy of Besancon, and there was some talk of withdrawing his pension; but he held it for the regular period.
Considerant, he was tried at Besancon but was acquitted.
For some time Proudhon carried on a small printing establishment at Besancon, but without success; afterwards he became connected as a kind of manager with a commercial firm at Lyons.
He enjoyed the favour of Conrad's successor, Frederick I.; was probably instrumental in settling the dispute over the duchy of Bavaria in 1156; was present at the famous diet at Besancon in 1157, and, still retaining the dress of a Cistercian monk, died at Morimond on the 22nd of September 1158.
At the diet of Besancon in October 1157, the legates presented to Barbarossa a letter from Adrian which alluded to the beneficia conferred upon the emperor, and the German chancellor translated this beneficia in the feudal sense.
At the outbreak of the French Revolution, in which he took an active part, he was imprisoned at Besancon, and lost his pension, being reduced to such extremities that he was obliged to sell a portion of his library.