Of yttria, Y203, and 42.75 of the oxides of erbium, cerium, didymium, lanthanum, iron, beryllium, calcium, magnesium and sodium.
The so-called alkaline earth-metals are the elements beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium.
Beryllium to a certain extent stands alone in many of its chemical' properties, resembling to some extent the metal aluminium.
Beryllium and magnesium are permanent in dry air; calcium, strontium and barium, however, oxidize rapidly on exposure.
Most of these were simple records of patient and laborious analytical operations, and it is perhaps surprising that among all the substances he analysed he only detected two new elements - beryllium (1798) in beryl and chromium (1797) in a red lead ore from Siberia.
It consisted in heating metallic chlorides with potassium, and was first applied to aluminium, which was isolated in 1827; in the following year, beryllium chloride was analysed by the same method, beryllium oxide (berylla or glucina) having been known since 1798, when it was detected by L.
Nilson and Pettersson's observations on beryllium and germanium have shown that the atomic heats of these metals increase with rise of temperature, finally becoming constant with a value 5.6.
The name beryllium was given to the metal by German chemists and was generally used until recently, when the earlier name was adopted.
By the same method as had succeeded with aluminium (reduction of the chloride by potassium) Wohler in 1828 obtained metallic beryllium and yttrium.
BERYLLIUM, or Glucinum (symbol Be, atomic weight 9.1), one of the metallic chemical elements, included in the same sub-group of the periodic classification as magnesium.
P. 554) have also prepared the metal by heating beryllium potassium fluoride with sodium; P. M.
120-127) has obtained it in lustrous hexagonal crystals by electrolysing the double fluoride of beryllium and sodium or potassium with an excess of Crystal of beryl.
Considerable discussion has taken place at different times as to the position which beryllium should occupy in the periodic classification of the elements, and as to whether its atomic weight should be 9.1 or 13.65, but the weight of evidence undoubtedly favours its position in Group II., with an atomic weight 9.1 (0= 16) (see Nilson and Pettersson, Berichte, 1880, 1 3, p. 1451 1884, 1 7, p. 987; B.
The specific heat of beryllium has been calculated by L.
Beryllium compounds are almost wholly prepared from beryl.
On concentration of the solution, the major portion of the aluminium present separates as alum, and the mother liquor remaining contains beryllium and iron sulphates together with a little alum.
This is now treated for some days with a hot concentrated solution of ammonium carbonate, which precipitates the iron and aluminium but keeps the beryllium in solution.
The iron and aluminium precipitates are filtered off, and the filtrate boiled, when a basic beryllium hydroxide containing a little ferric oxide is precipitated.
To remove the iron, the precipitate is again dissolved in ammonium carbonate and steam is blown through the liquid, when beryllium oxide is precipitated.
P. 909) from beryl by conversion of the beryllium into its fluoride.
Beryllium oxide, beryllia or glucina, BeO, is a very hard white powder which can be melted and distilled in the electric furnace, when it condenses in the form of minute hexagonal crystals.
The hydroxide Be(OH)2 separates as a white bulky precipitate on adding a solution of an alkaline hydroxide to a soluble beryllium salt; and like those of aluminium and zinc, this hydroxide is soluble in excess of the alkaline hydroxide, but is reprecipitated on prolonged boiling.
Beryllium chloride BeC1 2, like aluminium chloride, may be prepared by heating a mixture of the oxide and sugar charcoal in a current of dry chlorine.
Double sulphates of beryllium and the alkali metals are known, e.g.
Several basic carbonates are known, being formed by the addition of beryllium salts to solutions of the alkaline carbonates; the normal carbonate is prepared by passing a current of carbon dioxide through water containing the basic carbonate in suspension, the solution being filtered and concentrated over sulphuric acid in an atmosphere of carbon dioxide.
Beryllium salts are easily soluble and mostly have a sweetish taste (hence the name Glucinum, from yXv,dc, sweet); they are readily precipitated by alkaline sulphides with formation of the white hydroxide, and may be distinguished from salts of all other metals by the solubility of the oxide in ammonium carbonate.
Beryllium is estimated quantitatively by precipitation with ammonia, and ignition to oxide.
P. 721) obtained the values 9.113 from analyses of beryllium acetonyl-acetate and beryllium basic acetate.
Parsons, The Chemistry and Literature of Beryllium (1909).