MARCELLIN PIERRE EUGENE BERTHELOT (1827-1907), French chemist and politician, was born at Paris on the 29th of October 1827, being the son of a doctor.
Thomsen and Berthelot independently enunciated a generalization (commonly known as Berthelot's Third Principle, or Principle of Maximum Work), which may be stated in brief as follows: - Every pure chemical reaction is accompanied by evolution of heat.
Berthelot, on the other hand, assumed that the heat-capacity of an aqueous solution is equal to that of an equal volume of water, and calculated his results on this assumption, which involves much the same uncertainty as that of Thomsen.
Like Berthelot, he writes the chemical equation of the reaction, but in addition he considers the chemical formula of each substance to express not only its material composition, but also the (unknown) value of its intrinsic energy.
Berthelot, Essai de Mecanique Chimique fondee sur la Thermochimie (Paris, 1879); Thermochimie, donnees et lois numeriques (Paris, 1897); W.
Berthelot, and many other chemists, from whose researches it results that glycerin is a trihydric alcohol indicated by the formula C 3 H 5 (OH) 3j the natural fats and oils, and the glycerides generally, being substances of the nature of compound esters formed from glycerin by the replacement of the hydrogen of the OH groups by the radicals of certain acids, called for that reason "fatty acids."
Berthelot was the first to suggest, in 1866, after conducting a series of experiments, that mineral oil was produced by purely chemical action, similar to that employed in the manufacture of acetylene.
Berthelot that the workers in these processes, which were a monopoly of the priestly caste and were kept strictly secret, though fully aware that their products were not truly gold, were in time led by their success in deceiving the public to deceive themselves also, and to come to believe that they actually had the power of making gold from substances which were not gold.
Berthelot gives reproductions of the British Museum MSS.
Several alchemistical treatises, written in Arabic, exist in manuscript in the National Library at Paris and in the library of the university of Leiden, and have been reproduced by Berthelot, with translations, in vol.
But side by side with this literary transmission Berthelot insists that there was another mode of transmission, by means of the knowledge of practical receipts and processes traditional among jewellers, painters, workers in glass and pottery, and other handicraftsmen.
Berthelot, Les Origines de l'alchimie (1885); Collection des anciens alchimistes grecs (text and translation, 3 vols., 1887-1888); Introduction a l'etude de la chimie des anciens et du moyen age (1889); La Chimie au moyen age (text and translation of Syriac and Arabic treatises on alchemy, 3 vols., 1893).
Berthelot, " alchemy rested partly on the industrial processes of the ancient Egyptians, partly on the speculative theories of the Greek philosophers, and partly on the mystical reveries of the Gnostics and Alexandrians."
Berthelot first accomplished the synthesis of benzene in 1870 by leading acetylene, HC: CH, through tubes heated to dull redness; at higher temperatures the action becomes reversible, the benzene yielding diphenyl, diphenylbenzene, and acetylene.
Berthelot of Paris, and F.
Of the earlier suggestions for the constitution of naphthalene we notice the formulae of Wreden (1) and (2), Berthelot and Balls (3), R.
Berthelot and J.
Berthelot, Comptes rendus (1907), 1 44, P z69
He prepared a new edition of the monk Theophilus's celebrated treatise, Diversarum artium schedula, and for several years devoted his Saturday mornings to laboratory research with the chemist Aline Girard at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, the results of which were utilized by Marcellin Berthelot in the first volume (1894) of his Chimie au moyen dge.
Passed through a red-hot tube, benzene vapour yields hydrogen, diphenyl, diphenylbenzenes and acetylene; the formation of the last compound is an instance of a reversible reaction, since Berthelot found that acetylene passed through a red-hot tube gave some benzene.
Berthelot, Antiquites canariennes (Paris, 1839); Baker Webb and S.
Berthelot, Histoire naturelle des ties Canaries (Paris, 1839); Paul Broca, Revue d'anthropologie, iv.
Berthelot, and shown to be very fruitful in forming hydrocarbons.
Neville determined it to be 1061 7° C.; Daniel Berthelot gives 1064° C., while Jaquerod and Perrot give 1066.1-1067.4° C. At still higher temperatures it volatilizes, forming a reddish vapour.
Berthelot and L.
The observation that acetylene can be resolved into its constituents by detonation is due to Berthelot, who started an explosive wave in it by firing a charge of oï¿½i gram of mercury fulminate.
Discovered by Boyle in 1661, it was first carefully studied by Dumas and Peligot in 1831; its synthesis from its elements (through methane and methyl chloride) was effected by Berthelot in 1858.
Berthelot, who examined the skull, found no trace of injury by a bullet; and on the whole there is no reason to doubt the verdict of the original inquiry at Ermenonville.
Berthelot in 1883 showed that if ammonium nitrate be rapidly heated the following reaction takes place with explosive violence:-2NH 4 NO 3 = 4H20+2N2+ 02.
Berthelot); it also unites directly with fluorine, producing, chiefly, carbon tetrafluoride CF 4.
Berthelot, Ann., 1856, 98, p. 139).
Berthelot that under the influence of the silent electric discharge, a mixture of benzene vapour and argon underwent contraction, with formation of a gummy product from which the argon could be recovered.
Berthelot, Jahresb., 1851), or when petroleum is led through a red-hot tube packed with charcoal (A.
Berthelot, Comptes rendus, 1878, 86, P. 71) The anhydrous hydrogen peroxide obtained by Wolffenstein boils at 84-85°C. (68 mm.); its specific gravity is 1.4996 (I.
Berthelot considers that a higher oxide of silver is formed, whilst A.
Berthelot first as pupil, then as assistant and finally as colleague.
Berthelot, La Revolution chimique: Lavoisier (1890), which contains an analysis of and extracts from his laboratory notebooks.
Berthelot (Paris, 1835-1849); and "Les Iles Canaries et les parages de peche canariens," by Dr. A.
Berthelot (Paris, 1879).
Berthelot, Comptes rendus, 1878, 86, p. 786].
A, 1901, " On The Variation Of The Specific Heat Of Water"; For Combustion Methods, See Article Thermochemistry, And Treatises By Thomsen, Pattison Muir And Berthelot; See Also Articles Thermodynamics And Vaporization.
Berthelot threw a great deal of light on this question.
Berthelot further investigated Arabic MSS.
Berthelot was not prepared to assert that these treatises were actually written by Jaber, but he held it certain that they are works written in Arabic between the 9th and 12th centuries, at a period anterior to the relations of the Latins with the Arabs.
Transcribed and translated for Berthelot are really, as they profess to be, the work of Jaber, and as representative of his opinions and attainments.
18 But while Berthelot thus deprived the world of what were long regarded as genuine Latin versions of Jaber's works, he also gave it something in their place, for among the Paris MSS.
Hence Berthelot felt justified in assigning it to Jaber, although no Arabic original is known.