The heir-apparent Prince Bernard (b.
The site was five acres, and the building is described in the letters patent " as a fitting and noble college mansion in honour of the most glorious Virgin Mary and St Bernard in Northgates Street outside the Northgate of Oxford."
Von Galen (Munster, 1865); P. Corstiens, Bernard van Galen, VorstBisschop van Munster (Rotterdam, 1872); A.
The duchy of Saxe-Meiningen, or more correctly Saxe-Meiningen-Hildburghausen, was founded in 1681 by Bernard, the third son of Ernest the Pious, duke of Saxe-Gotha, and consisted originally of the western part of the present duchy, the district around Meiningen.
Bernard was succeeded in 1706 by his three sons, Ernest Louis, Frederick William and Anton Ulrich, but after 1746 the only survivor was the youngest, Anton Ulrich, who reigned alone from this date until his death in 1763.
Under the latter prince the country prospered greatly, and having introduced the principle of primogeniture, he died and was succeeded by his infant son, Bernard Ernest Freund (1800-1882), whose mother, Eleanora of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, governed in his name until 1821.
In 1866, unlike the other Saxon duchies, Saxe-Meiningen declared for Austria in the war with Prussia; at once the land was occupied by Prussian troops, and in September 1866 Duke Bernard abdicated and was succeeded by his son George (b.
Here his title was recognized by a synod called by Bernard of Clairvaux at Etampes.
BERNARD FRANCOIS CHAUVELIN, MARQUIS DE (1766-1832), French diplomatist and administrator.
He served first in Holland, and in the Thirty Years' War he commanded from 1638 to 1639 the French contingent in the army of his friend Bernard of SaxeWeimar, distinguishing himself particularly at the siege of Breisach in 1638.
During the second crusade (1145-1147) Bernard of Clairvaux heroically protested against similar inhumanities.
The original motive of the recipients of these favours was doubtless the taste of the time for outward display; St Bernard, zealous for the monastic ideal, de nounced abbots for wearing mitres and the like more pontificum, and Peter the Cantor roundly called the abbatial mitre " inane, superfluous and puerile " (Verb.
It is so with Bernard of Clairvaux (109053), who condemns Abelard's distinctions and reasonings as externalizing and degrading the faith.
Asceticism is thus the counterpart of medieval mysticism; and, by his example as well as by his teaching in such passages, St Bernard unhappily encouraged practices which necessarily resulted in self-delusion.
Even before this we hear of the prophetic visions of Hildegard of Bingen (a contemporary of St Bernard) and Elizabeth of SchOnau.
On the 2nd of July 1704, with the assistance of a bribing fund, Charles's ambassador at Warsaw, Count Arvid Bernard Horn, succeeded in forcing through the election of Charles's candidate to the Polish throne, Stanislaus Leszczynski, who could not be crowned however till the 24th of September 1705, by which time the Saxons had again been defeated at Punitz.
He was educated under Bernard of Chartres and Anselm of Laon.
Bernard in Hastings's Bible Dictionary, iii.
But the greatest success was attained when St Bernard - no great believer in pilgrimages, and naturally disposed to doubt the policy of a second Crusade - was induced by the pope to become the preacher of the new movement.
France St Bernard added the king of Germany, when, in Christmas week of 1146, he induced Conrad III.
The position of the Franks in the Holy Land was not improved by the attack on Damascus; while the ignominious failure of a Crusade led by two kings brought the whole crusading movement into discredit in western Europe, and it was utterly in vain that Suger and St Bernard attempted to gather a fresh Crusade in 1150.
This translation also contained a continuation by various hands down to 1277; while besides the continuation embedded in the Livre d'Eracles, there are separate continuations, of the nature of independent works, by Ernoul and Bernard the Treasurer.
These latter cover the period from 1183 to 1228; and of the two Ernoul's account seems primary, while that of Bernard is in large part a mere copy of Ernoul.
Metallurgical operations, such as smelting, roasting, and refining, were scientifically investigated, and in some degree explained, by Georg Agricola and Carlo Biringuiccio; ceramics was studied by Bernard Palissy, who is also to be remembered as an early worker in agricultural chemistry, having made experiments on the effect of manures on soils and crops; while general technical chemistry was enriched by Johann Rudolf Glauber.1
Thus the prominent school of criticism which appraised Wagner in the 10th century by his approximation to Darwin and Herbert Spencer, appraises him in the aoth by his approximation to Bernard Shaw; with the absurd result that Gatterdammerung is ruled out as a reactionary failure.
Bernard Shaw, though concerned mainly with the social philosophy of the Ring, gives a luminous account of Wagner's mastery of musical movement.
This was followed by a revolt of his nephew, Bernard, king of Italy; but the rising was easily suppressed, and Bernard was mutilated and killed.
The emperor soon began to repent of this cruelty, and when his remorse had been accentuated by the death of his wife in 818, he pardoned the followers of Bernard and restored their estates, and in 822 did public penance at Attigny.
Discontent at this arrangement increased to the point of rebellion, which broke out the following year, provoked by Judith's intrigues with Bernard, count of Barcelona, whom she had installed as her favourite at court.
Lothair and his brother Pippin joined the rebels, and after Judith had been sent into a convent and Bernard had fled to Spain, an assembly was held at Compiegne, when Louis was practically deposed and Lothair became the real ruler of the Empire.
(e) Useful companions of man - the mastiff, the Newfoundland, the St Bernard dog, the bulldog, the bull terrier, terriers, sheepdogs, Pomeranian or Spitz, and Dalmatian dogs.
- FOr the history of tin and statistics of its production, &c., see Bernard Neumann, Die Metalle (1904); A.
WILLIAM BERNARD ULLATHORNE (1806-1889), English Roman Catholic bishop, was born at Pocklington, Yorkshire, on the 7th of May 1806, of an old Roman Catholic family.
After the treaty of Prague, in May 1635, by which the emperor was reconciled with most of the German princes, Richelieu was finally obliged to declare war, and, concluding a treaty of offensive alliance at Compiegne with Oxenstierna, and in October one at St Germain-en-Laye with Bernard of Saxe-Weimar, he proceeded himself against Spain, both in Italy and in the Netherlands.
In order to see the difference in this respect between the schools we have only to compare the peaceful and fortunate life of William of Champeaux (who enjoyed the friendship of St Bernard) with the agitated and persecuted existence of Roscellinus and, in a somewhat less degree, of Abelard.
But now the greater boldness of the dialecticians awakened a spirit of general distrust in the exercise of reason on sacred subjects, and we find even a Realist like Gilbert de la Porree arraigned by Bernard and his friends before a general council on a charge of heresy (at Rheims, 1148).
Those heresy-hunts show us the worst side of St Bernard, yet they are in a way just the obverse of his deep mystical piety.
(wrote in 1278), Bernard of Trilia (1240-1202) and Peter of Auvergne.
To Bernard of Clairvaux and many other churchmen the application of dialectic to the things of faith appears as dangerous as it is impious.
Bernard of Chartres, at the beginning of the 12th century, endeavoured, according to John of Salisbury, to reconcile Plato and Aristotle; but his doctrine is almost wholly derived from the former through St Augustine and the commentary of Chalcidius.
For this he was called to account by Bernard of Clairvaux (1091-1153), the recognized guardian of orthodoxy in France.
In this book he tries to prove that Bernard (Sapiens), Alcuin, Boniface and Joannes Scotus Erigena were all Scots, and even Boadicea becomes a Scottish author.