Lichtenstein, Lotze and Wundt (Bern, 1900).
It was he who overcame the reluctance of the army to march to the relief of Vienna; after the defeat of Schwechat, at which he was present, he sent Bern to carry on the war in Transylvania.
Bern defeated him at Orsova (May 16), but the Russian invasion recalled him to Transylvania.
Bern was in command and was seriously wounded in the last pitched battle of the war, fought there on the 9th of August.
As a soldier Bern was remarkable for his excellent handling of artillery and the rapidity of his marches.
After a year of zealous work as preacher and director he was sent by the bishop, Claude de Granier, to try and win back the province of Chablais, which had embraced Calvinism when usurped by Bern in 1535, and had retained it even after its restitution to Savoy in 1564.
Thus his " studious and sedentary life " passed pleasantly enough, interrupted only at rare intervals by boyish excursions of a day or a week in the neighbourhood, and by at least one memorable tour of Switzerland, by Basel, Zurich, Lucerne and Bern, made along with Pavilliard in the autumn of 1755.
Of Bern, and 31 m.
Of Bern are, after the Vatican glossary of Ansileubus, the oldest of which we know; there are others in several libraries, and printed editions by Mai, Heider and Cahier.
Through the intervention of the government of Bern, liberty of worship was granted on the 28th of March 1533 to the Reformation party in Geneva.
He intervened in the French religious wars, and also fought with Bern and other Swiss cantons, and on the murder of Henry III.
Bern, Switzerland (Canton) >>
On the 23rd of May she left Coppet almost secretly, and journeyed by Bern, Innsbruck and Salzburg to Vienna.
Sprenger in his Postand Reiserouten des Orients (Leipzig, 1864) and further in his' Alte Geographie Arabiens (Bern, 1875), it was edited by D.
Here, on the 31st of July 1849, the Hungarian army under Bern was defeated by the overwhelming numbers of the Russian General Liiders.
His father was a physician, who on embracing the doctrines of the Reformation became a Protestant minister, and to escape persecution settled at Bern, in Switzerland.
Von Juvalt, Forschungen uber die Feudalzeit im Curischen Raetien, 2 parts (Zurich, 1871); C. Kind, Die Reformation in den Bisthumern Chur and Como (Coire, 1858); Conradin von Moor, Geschichte von Curraetien (2 vols., Coire, 1870-1874); P. C. von Planta, Das alte Raetien (Berlin, 1872); Idem, Die Curraetischen Herrschaften in der Feudalzeit (Bern, 1881); Idem, Verfassungsgeschichte der Stadt Cur im Mittelalter (Coire, 1879); Idem, Geschichte von Graubunden (Bern, 1892).
By that line they were sold in 1384, with Thun, to the town of Bern, whose bailiffs ruled in the castle till 1798.
Many of his papers are preserved in the library at Bern, to which they were presented in 1632, and a list of them was made in 1634.
Hagen, Jacobus Bongarsius (Bern, 1874); L.
(4)Dietrich of Bern (Verona), the legendary name of Theodoric the Great.
The emperor Constantine, while advancing towards Rome from Gaul, besieged and took Verona (312); it was here, too, that Odoacer was defeated (499) by Theodoric the Goth, Dietrich von Bern - i.e.
In 1780 the first volume (extending to 1388) of his Geschichten der Schweizer appeared, nominally at Boston (to avoid the censor), though really at Bern; and it was well received.
Adamson, Fichte (1881, in Knight's "Philosophical Classics"); Oscar Benzow, Zu Fichtes Lehre von Nicht-Ich (Bern, 1898); E.
In 1526 he was at the abortive conference of Baden, and in January 1528 drafted and defended the ten theses for the conference of Bern which established the new religion in that city.
Some other towns, including Bern, followed Zurich's example, but the Forest cantons refused to accept the innovations.
In its long struggle with its bishops and with the dukes of Savoy, Geneva had turned to her neighbours for aid, especially to Bern, with which an alliance was concluded Geneva in 1526.
Bern formally sanctioned becomes the innovations advocated by the Protestant preachers, a centre and although predominantly German assumed the of propa- role of protector of the reform party in the Pays ganda.
William Farel, one of the group of Meaux, who had fled to Switzerland and had been active in the conversion of Bern, went to Geneva in 1531.
With the protection afforded him and his companions by Bern, and the absence of well-organized opposition on the part of the Roman Catholics, the new doctrines rapidly spread, and by 1 535 Farel was preaching in St Pierre itself.
Meanwhile Bern had declared war on the duke of Savoy, and had not only conquered a great part of the Pays de Vaud, including the important town of Lausanne, but had enabled Geneva to win its complete independence.
Two years later he was sent to a school in Basel, where he remained three years, passing thence to the high school at Bern, where his master, Heinrich Wolflin, inspired him with an enthusiasm for the classics.
They were especially anxious to gain Bern, and Zwingli challenged the Romanists to a public disputation in that city.
No less than 350 ecclesiastics came to Bern from the various cantons to hear the pleadings, which began on the 2nd of January 1523 and lasted nineteen days.
The result of the discussion was that Bern was won over to the side of the reformer, who apprehended the whole struggle of Protestantism as turning directly on the political decisions of the various units of the Confederation.
Bern kept the south-west portion (Zofingen, Aarburg, Aarau, Lenzburg, and Brugg), but some districts, named the Freie Amter or "free bailiwicks" (Mellingen, Muri, Villmergen, and Bremgarten), with the county of Baden, were ruled as "subject lands" by all or certain of the Confederates.
Bronner, Der Kanton Aargau, 2 vols., St Gall and Bern, 1844; H.
The settlement in the Lake of Moosseedorf, near Bern, affords the most perfect example of a lake dwelling of the Stone age.
They also furnished him with means of flight, and he made for Yverdun in the territory of Bern, whence he transferred himself to Motiers in Neuchatel, which then belonged to Prussia.
Otto Brunfels, a physician of Bern, has been looked upon as the restorer of the science in Europe.
The broad-gauge railways in the canton have a length of 184 m., and include bits of the main lines towards Paris and Lausanne (for Bern or the Simplon), while there are also 724 m.
But, while lacking the medieval appearance of Fribourg or Bern, or Sion or Coire, the great number of modern fine buildings in Geneva, hotels, villas, &c., gives it an air of prosperity and comfort that attracts many visitors, though on others modern French architecture produces a blinding glare.
This armed intervention compelled the duke to sign the treaty of St Julien (19th October) by which he engaged not to trouble the Genevese any more, agreeing that if he did so the two towns of Fribourg and Bern should have the right to occupy his barony of Vaud.
In the course of this struggle (and especially after the last episcopal vidomne had left the town in 1526) the municipal authorities of the city greatly developed, a grand conseil of 200 members being set up in imitation of those at Bern and at Fribourg, while within the larger assembly there was a petit conseil of 60 members for more confidential business.
But although Bern supported the Reform, Fribourg did not, and in 1534 withdrew from its alliance with Geneva, while directly afterwards the duke of Savoy made a fresh attempt to seize the city.
Finally Bern, fearing that Geneva might fall to France instead of to itself, sent an army to protect the city (January 1536), but, not being able to persuade the citizens to give up their freedom, had to content itself with the conquest of the barony of Vaud and of the bishopric of Lausanne, thus acquiring rich territories, while becoming close neighbours of Geneva (January and March 1536).
In 1564, after long negotiations, Bern restored to the duke part of its conquests of 1536, viz.
Gex, the Genevois and the Chablais, Geneva being thus once more placed amid the dominions of the duke; though by the same treaty (that of Lausanne, October 156 4, Calvin having died the preceding May) the alliance of Bern with Geneva was maintained.
In 1579 Geneva was included in the alliance concluded by France with Bern and Soleure, while in 1584 Zurich joined Bern in another alliance with Geneva.
In 1457 we first hear of the Council of the Fifty (re-established in 1502 and later known as the Sixty), and in 1526 of the Council of the Two Hundred (established in imitation of those of Bern and Fribourg), both being summoned in special cases of urgency.