Carried out by the Swedish chemist, Torbern Bergman, acting under the impulse of Linnaeus, and by the German philosopher, Immanuel Kant.
Bergman (1784) Charles Hatchett (1798) and others also expressed views with regard to the constitution and origin of bitumens.
In his classical thesis Berthollet vigorously attacked the results deduced by Bergman, who had followed in his table of elective attractions the path traversed by Stahl and S.
Torbern Olof Bergman used an elaborate system in his Opuscula physica et chemica (1783); the 1 Dalton's atomic theory is treated in more detail in the article Atom.
He found, however, that chromic acid, which he had represented as Cr06, neutralized a base containing 3 the 3 The following symbols were also used by Bergman: W, V, " + ", which represented zinc, manganese, cobalt, bismuth, nickel, arsenic, platinum, water, alcohol, phlogiston.
Bergman worked in the same direction; while Rouelle was attracted to the study of animal chemistry.
Bergman laid the foundations of systematic qualitative analysis, and devised methods by which the metals may be separated into groups according to their behaviour with certain reagents.
Quantitative chemistry had been all but neglected before the time of Lavoisier, for although a few chemists such as Tachenius, Bergman and others had realized the advantages which would accrue from a knowledge of the composition of N N N bodies by weight, and had laid down the lines upon which such determinations should proceed, the experimental difficulties in making accurate observations were enormous, and little progress could be made until the procedure was more accurately determined.
Bergman proved its composition.
Bergman also observed that the addition of potash or ammonia made the solution of alumina in sulphuric acid crystallize, but that the same effect was not produced by the addition of soda or of lime (De confectione aluminus, Bergman's Opusc. i.
Torbern Olof Bergman reinvestigated its properties and determined its reactions; his account, which was published in his Opuscula, contains the first fairly accurate description of the metal.
Since the earliest quantitative analyses of sea-water were made by Lavoisier in 1772, Bergman in 177 4, Vogel in 1813 and Marcet in 1819 the view has been held that the salts are present in sea-water in the form in which they are deposited when the water is evaporated.
Bergman, in 1774, pointed out its acid character, and A.
Bergman, the leading chemist in Sweden.
Bergman somehow neglected it, and this caused for a time a reluctance on Scheele's part to become acquainted with that savant, but the paper, through the instrumentality of Anders Johann Retzius (1742-1821), was ultimately communicated to the Academy of Sciences at Stockholm.
Bergman in 1775 (De niccolo,opusc. 2, p. 231; 3, P. 459; 4, P. 374).
Its presence in scheelite was detected by Scheele and Bergman in 1781, and in 1783 Juan, Jose and d'Elhuyar showed the same substance occurred in wolfram; they also obtained the metal.
The two great Swedish chemists, Torbern Olof Bergman (1735-1784) and Karl Vilhelm Scheele (1742-1786), flourished at this time.
Bergman, whom he controverted, he must be regarded as the founder.
In a fine Alfred Hitchcock movie called Notorious, the troubled character played by Ingrid Bergman gets very drunk at a party and asks Cary Grant to come for a drive.