2 The words "substantially converted" appear in the formula which Berengarius was compelled to sign in 1079.
BERENGARIUS [BERENGAR] (d.
The early results of the application, in the hands of Berengarius and Roscellinus, did not seem favourable to Christian orthodoxy.
One of the first of these attacks was made by Berengarius of Tours (999-1088) upon the doctrine of transubstantiation; he denied the possibility of a change of substance in the bread and wine without some corresponding change in the accidents.
After his return to Rome he held (29th April 1050) another Easter synod, which was occupied largely with the controversy about the teachings of Berengarius of Tours; in the same year he presided over provincial synods at Salerno, Siponto and Vercelli, and in September revisited Germany, returning to Rome in time for a third Easter synod, at which the question of the reordination of those who had been ordained by simonists was considered.
Soon after settling in Wolfenbiittel, Lessing found in the library the manuscript of a treatise by Berengarius of Tours on transubstantiation in reply to Lanfranc. This was the occasion of Lessing's powerful essay on Berengarius, in which he vindicated the latter's character as a serious and consistent thinker.
In it he seems to have advanced the doctrine that the eucharist was merely symbolical or commemorative, an opinion for which Berengarius was at a later date censured and condemned.
As a part of his penance Berengarius is said to have been compelled to burn publicly Erigena's treatise.
Already in 1068 Count Berengarius gave the city a special law (usatici) based on its ancient usages, and from the 4th century its commercial code (libro del consolat del mar) became influential all over southern Europe.