The truth is that no period in Italian history was less really glorious than that which came to a close in 961 by Berengar II.s cession of his rights to Otto the Great.
The last king of the quasi-Italian succession, Berengar II., marquis of Ivrea (951961), made a vigorous effort to restore the authority of the regno; and had he succeeded, it is not impossible that now at the last moment Italy might have become an independent nation.
But this attempt at unification was reckoned to Berengar for a crime.
Berengar stood alone against a multitude, unanimous in their intolerance of discipline.
Berengar imprisoned her upon the Lake of Como, and threatened her with a forced marriage to his son Adalbert.
After this episode Berengar was more discredited and impotent than ever.
Berengar gained nothing by his act of obedience to Otto.
Otto entered Lombardy Saxon in 961, deposed Berengar, assumed the crown in San and FranAmbrogio at Milan, and in 962 was proclaimed conlan emperor by John XII.
In 93 1 he entered the service of King Hugo of Italy as page; he afterwards rose to a high position at the court of Hugo's successor Berengar, having become chancellor, and having been sent (949) on an embassy to the Byzantine court.
Falling into disgrace with Berengar on his return, he attached himself to the emperor Otto I., whom in 961 he accompanied into Italy, and by whom in 962 he was made bishop of Cremona.
He wrote (1) Antapodoseos, seu rerum per Europem gestarum, Libri VI, an historical narrative, relating to the events from 887 to 949, compiled with the object of avenging himself upon Berengar and Willa his queen; (2) Historia Ottonis, a work of greater impartiality and merit, unfortunately covering only the years from 960 to 964; and (3) the Relatio de Legatione Constantinopolitana (968-969).
Nominalism was a doctrine of sceptics and suspected heretics, such as Berengar of Tours and Roscellinus.
BERENGARIUS [BERENGAR] (d.
Sometime before 1040 Berengar was made archdeacon of Angers.
His early friend and school companion, Adelmann, archdeacon of Liege, wrote to him letters of expostulation on the subject of this report in 1046 and 1048; and a bishop, Hugo of Langres, wrote (about 1049) a refutation of the views which he had himself heard Berengar express in conversation.
Because of it Berengar was condemned as a heretic without being heard, by a synod at Rome and another at Vercelli, both held in 1050.
At the council of Tours (1054) he found a protector in the papal legate, the famous Hildebrand, who, satisfied himself with the fact that Berengar did not deny the real presence of Christ in the sacramental elements, succeeded in persuading the assembly to be content with a general confession from him that the bread and wine, after consecration, were the body and blood of the Lord, without requiring him to define how.
He continued for about sixteen years to disseminate his views by writing and teaching, without being directly interfered with by either his civil or ecclesiastical superiors, greatly to the scandal of the multitude and of the zealots, in whose eyes Berengar was 4 ` ille apostolus Satanae," and the academy of Tours the " Babylon nostri temporis."
An attempt was made at the council of Poitiers in 1076 to allay the agitation caused by the controversy, but it failed, and Berengar narrowly escaped death in a tumult.
Hildebrand, now pope as Gregory VII., next summoned him to Rome, and, in a synod held there in 1078, tried once more to obtain a declaration of his orthodoxy by means of a confession of faith drawn up in general terms; but even this strong-minded and strong-willed pontiff was at length forced to yield to the demands of the multitude and its leaders; and in another synod at Rome (1079), finding that he was only endangering his own position and reputation, he turned unexpectedly upon Berengar and commanded him to confess that he had erred in not teaching a change as to substantial reality of the sacramental bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ.
" Then," says Berengar, " confounded by the sudden madness of the pope, and because God in punishment for my sins did not give me a steadfast heart, I threw myself on the ground, and confessed with impious voice that I had erred, fearing the pope would instantly pronounce against me the sentence of condemnation, and, as a necessary consequence, that the populace would hurry me to the worst of deaths."
Berengar left behind him a considerable number of followers.
The opinions of Berengar are to be ascertained from the works written in refutation of them by Adelmann, Lanfranc, Guitmund, &c. from the fragments of the De sacr.
Broecking, " Bruno von Angers and Berengar von Tours," in Deutsche Zeitschrift fiir Geschichtswissenschaft (vol.
He was therefore naturally invited to defend the doctrine of transubstantiation against the attacks of Berengar of Tours.
He took up the task with the greatest zeal, although Berengar had been his personal friend; he was the protagonist of orthodoxy at the councils of Vercelli (1050), Tours (1054) and Rome (1059).
Our knowledge of Lanfranc's polemics is chiefly derived from the tract De cor pore et sanguine Domini which he wrote many years later (after 1079) when Berengar had been finally condemned.
In this he was successful at the same council which witnessed his third victory over Berengar (1059), and he thus acquired a lasting claim on William's gratitude.
In the middle ages Ivrea was the capital of a Lombard duchy, and later of a marquisate; both Berengar II.
In 945 Berengar I., margrave of Ivrea, left the court of Otto and returned to Italy, where he soon obtained a mastery over the country.
After the death in 950 of Lothair, king of Italy, Berengar sought the hand of his widow Adelaide for his son Adalbert; and Henry of Bavaria and Ludolf of Swabia had already been meddling independently of each other in the affairs of northern Italy.
But when Otto returned to Germany in 952 he was followed by Berengar, who did homage for Italy at Augsburg.
Lands and privileges were granted to prelates, additional bishoprics were founded, and some years later Magdeburg was made the seat of an archbishop. In 960 Otto was invited to come to Italy by Pope John XII., who was hard pressed by Berengar, and he began to make preparations for the journey.
He gained a temporary authority in northern Italy, but was soon compelled by his rival Berengar, margrave of Friuli, to leave the country and to swear he would never return.
In spite of his oath he went again to Italy in 904, where he secured the submission of Lombardy; but on the 21st of July 9 05 he was surprised at Verona by Berengar, who deprived him of his sight and sent him back to Provence, where he passed his days in enforced inactivity until his death in September 928.
Thus Berengar of Tours (999-1088) upheld the symbolic character of the Eucharist and the superiority of the Bible over tradition.
Then Berengar of Tours (d.
To these questions Berengar gave no answer; he was ruined by his opposition to Radbert's doctrine of transubstantiation.
In order to protect himself against the intrigues in Rome and the power of Berengar II.
His intrigues were discovered by Otto, who, after he had defeated and taken prisoner Berengar, returned to Rome and summoned a council which deposed John, who was in hiding in the mountains of Campania, and elected Leo VIII.
Berengar in the i ith century assailed this view, which was really that of transubstantiation, alleging that there is no substance in matter apart from the accidents, and that therefore Christ cannot be corporally present in the sacrament; because, if so, he must be spatially present, and there will be two material bodies in one space; moreover his body will be in thousands of places at once.
Berengar in a weak moment in 1059 was forced by the pope to recant and assert that " the true body and blood are not only a sacrament, but in truth touched and broken by the hands of the priests and pressed by the teeth of the faithful," and this position remains in every Roman catechism.
The young widow, remarkable for her character and beauty, was seized by Lothair's successor, Berengar II., margrave of Ivrea, who, angered probably at her refusal to marry his son Adalbert and thus secure his title to the Italian kingdom, kept her in close confinement at Como.
The rest of her life is merely outlined, though her adventures in escaping from Berengar are treated in more detail.
About 951 Adelaide, widow of Lothair, son of Hugh, king of Italy, having refused to marry the son of Berengar, margrave of Ivrea, was cast into prison and cruelly treated.
He displaced Berengar, and was so fascinated by Queen Adelaide that within a few weeks he was married to her at Pavia.
Entreated by Pope John XII., who needed a helper agains Berengar, Otto went a second time to Italy, in 961; and on this occasion he received from the pope at Rome the imperial crown.
It was in San Michele Maggiore in Pavia that Berengar of Friuli, and his quasi-regal successors down to Berengar II.
(Leipzig, 1905); Naegle, Ratramnus and die heilige Eucharistic (Vienna, 1903); Schnitzer, Berengar von Tours; and A.