Benzamide, C6H5ï¿½Conh2,, crystallizes in leaflets which melt at 130° C. It is prepared by the action of ammonium carbonate on benzoyl chloride.
O COC 6 H 5, prepared from phenol and benzoyl chloride, crystallizes in monoclinic prisms, which melt at 68-69° C. and boil at 314° C.
Chem., 1832, 3, p. 2 49) is to be regarded as a most important contribution to the radical theory, for it was shown that a radical containing the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which they named benzoyl (the termination yl coming from the Gr.
An, matter), formed the basis of benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, benzoyl chloride, benzoyl bromide and benzoyl sulphide, benzamide and benzoic ether.
However, in 1833, Berzelius reverted to his earlier opinion that oxygenated radicals were incompatible with his electrochemical theory; he regarded benzoyl as an oxide of the radical C 14 H 1Q, which he named " picramyl " (from 7rucp6s, bitter, and &uvyalk, almond), the peroxide being anhydrous benzoic acid; and he dismissed the views of Gay Lussac and Dumas that ethylene was the radical of ether, alcohol and ethyl chloride, setting up in their place the idea that ether was a suboxide of ethyl, (C2H5)20, which was analogous to K 2 0, while alcohol was an oxide of a radical C 2 H 6; thus annihilating any relation between these two compounds.
Similarly he represented the reactions investigated by Liebig and Wehler on benzoyl compounds as double decompositions.
Acetyland benzoyl-formaldoxime are derivatives of the threefold polymeric form.
With sodium ethylate in ethyl acetate solution it forms the sodium derivative of benzoyl acetone, from which benzoyl acetone, C6H5.CO.CH2.CO.CH3, can be obtained by acidification with acetic acid.
It is probably a hydroxy-compound, since it gives a red-brown colour with ferric chloride, reacts with phenyl isocyanate and with phosphorus pentachloride, and with benzoyl chloride yields dibenzhydroxamic acid, C 6 H 5 CO NH O.
In using benzoyl chloride in this reaction the condensation is found to proceed better if a little ammonium chloride be added: 2C6H5 CNd-C6H5.0001 C6H5 C Cl OC C6H5 6 H 5 N C(C6H5):N The cyanidines behave as weak bases.
T' rhos, horse, o15pov, urine), benzoyl glycocoll or benzoyl amidoacetic acid, C 9 H 9 NO 3 or C 6 H 5 CO NH CH 2 CO 2 H, an organic acid found in the urine of horses and other herbivorae.
87, p. 325) synthesized it by acting with benzoyl chloride on zinc glycocollide.
Nitrous acid converts it into benzoyl glycollic acid, C,H 5 CO.
In 1832 he published, jointly with Willer, one of the most famous papers in the history of chemistry, that on the oil of bitter almonds (benzaldehyde), wherein it was shown that the radicle benzoyl might be regarded as forming an unchanging constituent of a long series of compounds obtained from oil of bitter almonds, throughout which it behaved like an element.
Berzelius hailed this discovery as marking the dawn of a new era in organic chemistry, and proposed for benzoyl the names "Proin" or "Orthrin" (from irpcoi and dpOpus).
An alternative method consists in converting it into ethyl benzoate by shaking with benzoyl chloride and caustic soda.
Villiger (Berichte, 1900, 33, pp. 858, 2480) have shown that benzoyl hydrogen peroxide C 6 H 5 CO O OH is formed as an intermediate product and that this oxidizes the indigo compound, being itself reduced to benzoic acid; they have also shown that this peroxide is soluble in benzaldehyde with production of benzoic acid, and it must be assumed that the oxidation of benzaldehyde proceeds as shown in the equations: C 6 H 5 CHO+0 2 = C6H5CO.O.OH, C 6 H 5 CO.
One of the earliest, if not the earliest, was the investigation, published in 1830, which proved the polymerism of cyanic and cyanuric acid, but the most famous were those on the oil of bitter almonds (benzaldehyde) and the radicle benzoyl (1832), and on uric acid (1837), which are of fundamental importance in the history of organic chemistry.
Synthetically prepared by the reduction of benzoyl chloride; by the action of nitrous acid on benzylamine; by boiling benzyl chloride with an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate, or by the so-called "Cannizzaro" reaction, in which benzaldehyde is shaken up with caustic potash, one half of the aldehyde being oxidized to benzoic acid, and the other half reduced to the alcohol.
1888 , 14, p. 44 1); by the action of carbon dioxide on monobrombenzene in the presence of sodium; by condensing benzene And carbonyl chloride in presence of aluminium chloride, the benzoyl chloride formed being subsequently hydrolysed; and similarly from benzene and chlorformamide: C6H6 +Cl Conh 2 = Hc1 -C6h,CONH2, the benzamide being then hydrolysed.
Benzoic anhydride, (C 6 H 5 C0) 2 0, is prepared by the action of benzoyl chloride on sodium benzoate, or by heating benzoyl chloride with anhydrous oxalic acid (R.
Benzoyl chloride, C 6 H S 0001, is formed by distilling a mixture of phosphorus pentachloride and benzoic acid; by the action of chlorine on benzaldehyde, or by passing a stream of hydrochloric acid gas over a mixture of benzoic acid and phosphorus pentoxide heated to 200°C. (C. Friedel, Ben.
Benzamide, C 6 H 5 CONH 2, is prepared by the action of benzoyl chloride on ammonia or ammonium carbonate, or from ethyl benzoate and ammonia.
The product on acidification gives a compound C15H1205 ï¿½ H20 which is probably an oxy-methoxy-benzoyl benzoic acid.
Cocaine in which the benzoyl group is replaced by the cinnamyl group. aand 3-truxillines, named from their isolation from a coca of Truxillo (Peru), are two isomeric alkaloids which hydrolyse to ecgonine, methyl alcohol, and two isomeric acids, the truxillic acids, C18H1604.
It may be prepared by distilling calcium benzoate; by condensing benzene with benzoyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride; by the action of mercury diphenyl on benzoyl chloride, or by oxidizing diphenylmethane with chromic acid.
Braun (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 2915) showed that benzoyl piperidine, when heated with phosphorus pentachloride to 200° C. in sealed tubes, yields benzonitrile, and pentamethylene dichloride, thus leading to a simple method of preparing pentamethylene compounds.
The alkaloid is a strong base and is very readily oxidized; chromic acid converts it into normal butyric acid and ammonia; hydrogen peroxide gives aminopropylvalerylaldehyde, NH 2 CH(C 3 11 7) (CH2)3 CHO, whilst the benzoyl derivative is oxidized by potassium permanganate to benzoyl-a-aminovaleric acid, C 6 H 5 CO NH CH(C 3 H 7) (CH 2)3 COOH.