The best solvents for rubber are carbon bisulphide, benzol and mineral naphtha, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform.
The ordinary macintosh or waterproof cloth is prepared by spreading on the textile fabric layer after layer of indiarubber paste or solution made with benzol or coal-naphtha.
" Benzene " is the term used by English chemists, " benzol " is used in Germany, and " benzole " in France.
Mansfield (1819-1855), who separated a benzol distilling below too from a less volatile naphtha by using a simple dephlegmator.
(The term " 30% benzol " means that 30% by volume distils below ioo°.) A purer benzol was subsequently required for the manufacture of aniline black and other dye-stuffs.
(2) A mixture of loo litres of spirit, 14 litres of the naphtha-pyridine mixture described above, 4 litre of methyl violet solution, and from 2 to 20 litres of benzol; this fluid is limited to combustion in motors and agricultural engines.
These consist of ioo litres of spirit mixed with either ro litres of sulphuric ether, or r litre of benzol, or 2 litre of turpentine, or ï¿½025 litre of animal oil.
That nothing analogous to bitumen exists in coals is proved by the fact that the ordinary solvents for bituminous substances, such as bisulphide of carbon and benzol, have no effect upon them, as would be the case if they contained bitumen soluble in these re-agents.
Mixing with benzol and/or petrol, or with ether in varying proportions, enables it, however, to be employed successfully in them, until such time as engines specially designed for its use are available.
The German production of alcohol had fallen off very much since the war, and little if any was being used for motors, benzol being the fuel principally employed.
Wood, when white light is transmitted through a paste made of powdered quartz and a mixture of carbon bisulphide with benzol having the same refractive index as the quartz for yellow light.
The wonderful carburetting power of benzol vapour is well known, a large proportion of the total illuminating power of coal gas being due to the presence of a minute trace of its vapour carried E in suspension.
For many years the price of benzol has been falling, owing to the large quantities produced in meat arlch by the coke ovens, and at its present price it is by far the volatile cheapest enriching material that can be obtained.
The retorts in the desired proportion, and the mixture of water gas and coal gas is then carburetted to the required extent by benzol vapour, a process which at the present price of oil and benzol is distinctly more economical than the use of carburetted water gas.
- This includes a very large number of bodies chemically allied to benzol, such as carbolic acid, sulphocarbolates, creosote, wood tar, coal tar, oil of cade, thymol, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, naphthol, hydroquinon, cresol, guaiacol, ichthyol, saccharin and many others.