An, matter), formed the basis of benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, benzoyl chloride, benzoyl bromide and benzoyl sulphide, benzamide and benzoic ether.
They do not polymerize, and in the presence of caustic alkalies do not resinify, but oxidize to alcohols and acids (see Benzaldehyde for Cannizzaro's reaction).
With ammonia, benzaldehyde does not form an aldehyde ammonia, but condenses to hydrobenzamide, (C 6 H 5 CH) 3 N 2, with elimination of water.
It is prepared by oxidizing cinnamyl alcohol, or by the action of sodium ethylate on a mixture of benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde.
In 1832 he published, jointly with Willer, one of the most famous papers in the history of chemistry, that on the oil of bitter almonds (benzaldehyde), wherein it was shown that the radicle benzoyl might be regarded as forming an unchanging constituent of a long series of compounds obtained from oil of bitter almonds, throughout which it behaved like an element.
They form condensation products with aldehydes, benzaldehyde and aniline forming benzylidene aniline, C 6 H 5 N: CHC 6 H 5, and when heated with acids they form anilides.
It can be prepared by the reduction of phenyl propiolic acid with zinc and acetic acid, by heating benzal malonic acid, by the condensation of ethyl acetate with benzaldehyde in the presence of sodium ethylate or by the so-called "Perkin reaction"; the latter being the method commonly employed.
In making the acid by this process benzaldehyde, acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate are heated for some hours to about 180 C., the resulting product is made alkaline with sodium carbonate, and any excess of benzaldehyde removed by a current of steam.
The corresponding amide, phenyl-azo-carbonamide, C6H5N2: CONH 2, also results from the oxidation of phenylsemicarbazide (Thiele, loc. cit.), and forms reddish-yellow needles which melt at 114° C. When heated with benzaldehyde to 120° C. it yields diphenyloxytriazole, (C6H5)2CN3C(OH).
BENZALDEHYDE (oil of bitter almonds), C 6 H 5 CHO, the simplest representative of the aromatic aldehydes.
Jacobsen has also obtained benzaldehyde by heating benzal chloride with glacial acetic acid: C 6 H 5 CHC1 2 +CH 3 000H =CH30001 +HC1+C6H5CHO.
Benzaldehyde is a colourless liquid smelling of bitter almonds.
The oxidation of benzaldehyde to benzoic acid when exposed to air is not one of ordinary oxidation, for it has been observed in the case of many compounds that during such oxidation, as much oxygen is rendered " active " as is used up by the substance undergoing oxidation; thus if benzaldehyde is left for some time in contact with air, water and indigosulphonic acid, just as much oxygen is used up in oxidizing the indigo compound as in oxidizing the aldehyde.
Villiger (Berichte, 1900, 33, pp. 858, 2480) have shown that benzoyl hydrogen peroxide C 6 H 5 CO O OH is formed as an intermediate product and that this oxidizes the indigo compound, being itself reduced to benzoic acid; they have also shown that this peroxide is soluble in benzaldehyde with production of benzoic acid, and it must be assumed that the oxidation of benzaldehyde proceeds as shown in the equations: C 6 H 5 CHO+0 2 = C6H5CO.O.OH, C 6 H 5 CO.
The oxime of benzaldehyde (C 6 H 5 CH: N OH), formed by the addition of hydroxylamine to the aldehyde, exhibits a characteristic behaviour when hydrochloric acid gas is passed into its ethereal solution, a second modification being produced.
On account of the readiness with which it condenses with various compounds, benzaldehyde is an important synthetic reagent.
H 3 C CO NH 3 CO CH 3 H3C C - NH - C CH3 On nitration it yields chiefly meta-nitro-benzaldehyde, crystallizing in needles which melt at 58° C. The ortho-compound may be obtained by oxidizing ortho-nitrocinnamic acid with alkaline potassium permanganate in the presence of benzene; or from ortho - nitrobenzyl chloride by condensing it with aniline, oxidizing the product so obtained to ortho-nitrobenzylidine aniline, and then hydrolysing this compound with an acid (Farben fabrik d.
The third is also in the para position; for if benzaldehyde be condensed with aniline, condensation occurs in the para position, for the compound formed may be converted into para-dioxybenzophenone, C6H5CHO -)C6H5CH(C6H4NH2)2 - >C6H5CH(C6H40H)2 -->CO(C6H40H)2 but if para-nitrobenzaldehyde be used in the above reaction and the resulting nitro compound N02 C6H4 CH(C6H4NH2)2 be reduced, then pararosaniline is the final product, and consequently the third amino group occupies the para position.
One of the earliest, if not the earliest, was the investigation, published in 1830, which proved the polymerism of cyanic and cyanuric acid, but the most famous were those on the oil of bitter almonds (benzaldehyde) and the radicle benzoyl (1832), and on uric acid (1837), which are of fundamental importance in the history of organic chemistry.
Synthetically prepared by the reduction of benzoyl chloride; by the action of nitrous acid on benzylamine; by boiling benzyl chloride with an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate, or by the so-called "Cannizzaro" reaction, in which benzaldehyde is shaken up with caustic potash, one half of the aldehyde being oxidized to benzoic acid, and the other half reduced to the alcohol.
It is a colourless liquid, with a faint aromatic smell, and boils at 206° C. On oxidation with nitric acid it is converted into benzaldehyde, whilst chromic acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid.
It occurs naturally in some resins, especially in gum benzoin (from Styrax benzoin), in dragon's blood, and as a benzyl ester in Peru and Tolu balsams. It can be prepared by the oxidation of toluene, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and cinnamic acid; by the oxidation of benzene with manganese dioxide and concentrated sulphuric acid in the cold (L.
When heated with lime, it is decomposed, benzene being formed; if its vapours are passed over heated zinc dust, it is converted into benzaldehyde (A.
Distillation of its calcium salt gives benzophenone with small quantities of other substances, but if the calcium salt be mixed with calcium formate and the mixture distilled, benzaldehyde is produced.
Benzoyl chloride, C 6 H S 0001, is formed by distilling a mixture of phosphorus pentachloride and benzoic acid; by the action of chlorine on benzaldehyde, or by passing a stream of hydrochloric acid gas over a mixture of benzoic acid and phosphorus pentoxide heated to 200°C. (C. Friedel, Ben.
Thus by using benzene, benzaldehyde and anthracene are obtained.
Phenylfulven, j " > C :CHPh, HC: CHI obtained from benzaldehyde and cyclo-pentadiene, forms dark red plates.
It combines with benzaldehyde, in the presence of hydrochloric acid, to form 2-benzyl-hydroquinone.