By the Benue, W.
BENUE, a river of West Africa, the largest and most important affluent of the Niger, which it joins after a course of over 800 m.
Through the Tuburi marshes there is a water connexion between the Benue (Niger) and Shari (Lake Chad) systems.
LOKOJA, a town of Nigeria, at the junction of the Niger and Benue rivers, founded in 1860 by the British consul, W.
Ascending the Benue about 250 m.
The expedition had been instructed to endeavour to afford assistance to Heinrich Barth, who had in 1851 crossed the Benue in its upper course, but Baikie was unable to gain any trustworthy information concerning him.
The boundary is then deflected south so as to leave Yola in British territory, turning north again to cross the Benue river at a spot 3 m.
Here they give rise to a number of small rivers, which collect in the rift and form the Benue, the great eastern affluent of the Niger.
Including the headwaters of the Benue the colony has four distinct river-systems, one connecting with the Niger, another with the Congo, and a third with Lake Chad, the fourth being the rivers which run direct to the sea.
From it issues the Kebbi (Mao Kebi) a tributary of the Benue, and through it flows a tributary of the Logone, the chief affluent of the Shari.
Along the Benue river a sandstone (Benue sandstone) forms the banks to 14° E.
The country north of the Benue is rich and well cultivated.
In the vicinity of the rivers Benue, Faro and Kebbi, the people, who are good agriculturists, raise cereals and other crops, while on the plateaus stock-raising forms the chief pursuit of the inhabitants.
Another large town is Garua on the Benue river.
Bauer, Die deutsche Niger-Benue-Tsadsee-Expedition, 1902-1903 (Berlin, 1904); C. Rene, Kamerun and die deutsche Tsddsee Eisenbahn (Berlin, 1905); O.
From the sea, the Benue, which, rising in the mountains of Adamawa south of Lake Chad, flows west across the plateau.
The Niger at its confluence with the Benue is not more than 250 ft.
The valleys of the Niger and Benue, especially the latter, are very much lower, the town of Yola on the Benue, some 400 m.
Occur; parts of Muri, along the north bank of the Benue; and the southern border of the Benue basin, where the hills (consisting of ironstone, quartz and granite) appear rich in minerals.
Of the tributaries of the Benue the most important is the Gongola.
From the edge of the coast belt to near the confluence of the Benue and Niger they are overlain by unfossiliferous sandstones, lying undisturbed and possibly of the age of the sandstones of the Congo basin.
Recent alluvium and a thick deposit of black earth border the upper reaches of the Benue and cover wide areas around Lake Chad.
Of these the Munshi, who inhabit the district nearest the junction of the Benue with the Niger, were long noted for their intractability and hostility to strangers, whom they attacked with poisoned arrows.
South of the Benue, near the Niger confluence, dwell the savage and warlike Okpotos, Bassas and other tribes.
On the Niger at the head of the delta are Asaba (west bank) and Onitsha (east bank); Iddah (Ida), in the palm-oil zone; Lokoja on the west bank opposite the confluence with the Benue, and the headquarters of the protectorate's military force; Baro, on the east bank, 70 m.
Of Egga on the Niger; and Yola (q.v.) on the Benue near the German frontier.
Steamers can also ascend the Benue to Yola, 480 m., above the confluence of that river with the Niger at Lokoja.
Silver and lead have been found in the Benue area.'
Macgregor Laird first organized in 1832 the navigation of the river Niger from its mouth to a point above the Benue confluence.
To the frontier of the French possessions on the north and including the confluence of the Niger and the Benue at Lokoja, was proclaimed a protectorate under the name of Northern Nigeria.
The rulers of other neighbouring provinces offered their allegiance, and by the end of the year 1901 nine provinces, Illorin, Kabba, Middle Niger, Lower Benue, Upper Benue, Nupe, Kontagora, Borgu and Zaria had accepted the British occupation.
These territories, with the exception of Zaria, were all in the more or less immediate neighbourhood of the valleys of the Niger and the Benue, and Zaria bordered upon the Kaduna.
Seventeen legislative proclamations were enacted in the first year dealing with the immediate necessities of the position, and providing for the establishment of a supreme and provincial court of justice, for the legalization of native courts of justice, and dealing with questions of slavery, importation of liquor and firearms, land titles, &c. In the autumn of 1901 the emir of Yola, the extreme eastern corner of the territories bordering upon the Benue, was, in consequence of the aggressions upon a trading station established by the Niger Company, dealt with in the same manner as the emirs of Nupe and Kontagora, and a new emir was appointed under British rule.
Trade is chiefly with Yola, a town on the Benue in British Nigeria, and with Khartum via Wadai.
The Gongola, flowing east and south to the Benue, rises in the Sura district, and from the Kibyen plateau streams flow north to Lake Chad, west to the Kaduna, and south to the Benue.
Bauchi is a province of special importance from the European point of view because, with free communication from the Benue assured, it is probable that on the Kibyen and Sura plateaus, which are the healthiest known in the protectorate, a sanatorium and station for a large civil population might be established under conditions in which Europeans could live free from the evil effects of a West African climate.
This region is watered by the Benue, the chief affluent of the Niger, and its tributary the Faro.
The most fertile parts of the country are the plains near the Benue, about Soo ft.
Garua on the upper Benue, 65 m.
BASSA, a province of the British protectorate of Northern Nigeria, occupying the angle made by the meeting of the Benue river with the Niger.
In consequence of the natural wealth of the province, there are trading establishments of the Niger Company and of Messrs Holt on the Niger and Benue, and colonies of native traders have penetrated the country from the north.
An important branch, however - the Benue - comes from the south-east.
NIGER, a great river of West Africa, inferior only to the Congo and Nile among the rivers of the continent, and the only river in Africa which, by means of its tributary the Benue, affords a waterway uninterrupted by rapids, and available for shallow-draught steamers, to the far interior.
From its mouth it is joined by the Benue, coming from the east from the mountainous region of Adamawa.
At their confluence the Niger is about three-quarters of a mile broad and the Benue rather more than a mile.
The Benue is by far the most important of the affluents of the Niger.
In its upper course the Benue is a mountain torrent falling over 2000 ft.
Below these obstructions the Kebbi to its junction with the Benue has a depth of not less than 6 ft.
Below the Kebbi confluence the Benue, now a considerable river, turns from a northerly to a westerly direction and is navigable all the year round by boats drawing not more than 21 ft.
It lies on the southern side of the Benue, some 850 m.
Below Yola the Benue receives, on the right bank, the Gongola, which rises in the Bauchi highlands and after a great curve north-east turns southward.
The Benue receives several other tributaries both from the north and the south, but they are not of great importance.
The Benue lies within British territory to a point 3 m.
As the Niger and the Benue have different gathering grounds, they are not in flood at the same time.
The Benue reaches its greatest height in August or September, begins to fall in October, falls rapidly in November and slowly in the next three months, and reaches its lowest in March and April, when it is fordable in many places, has no perceptible flow and at the confluence begins to be covered with the water-weed Pistia Stratiotes.
From Idrisi's description it would appear that he regarded the Shari, Lake Chad, the Benue, Niger and Senegal as one great river which emptied into the Atlantic. 2 That the Niger flowed west and reached the ocean was also stated by Leo Africanus.
Apart; the Niger communicates directly through the Benue, Lake Tuburi and the Logone with the Shari; the easternmost affluents of the Shari and the most western tributaries of the Bahr el Ghazel affluent of the Nile are within 20 m.
Oldfield (as members of its first expedition) ascended the Niger to Rabba, and the Benue as far as Dagbo (80 m.).
In 1885 a voyage was made by Captain Delanneau In 1816 James McQueen correctly divined that there was a great west-flowing tributary (the Benue) to the Niger, and that after its confluence the river ran south to the Atlantic. See his View of Northern Central Africa (1821) and Geographical Survey of Africa (1840).
In 1851 Barth crossed the Benue at its junction with the Faro, but the region of its sources was first explored by Flegel (1882-1884), who traversed the whole southern basin of the river and reached Ngaundere.
Messrs Talbot and Claud Alexander surveyed the country between Ibi on the Benue and Lake Chad, mapping (1904) a considerable part of the Gongola.'
In 1854 the Benue itself was ascended 400 m.