Even at this stage the vindictive or retributive character of punishment remains, but gradually, and specially after the humanist movement under thinkers like Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, new theories begin to emerge.
- Jeremy Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles of Morality and Legislation; Henry Maine, Ancient Law; C. B.
For Flora: Maiden, Useful Native Plants of Australia (Sydney, 1889); Bentham and Mueller, Flora Australiensis (London, 1863-1878); Fitzgerald, Australian Orchids (Sydney, 1870-1890); Mueller, Census of Australian Plants (Melbourne, 1889).
Even Jeremy Bentham, restive under appeals to vague and intangible standards, breaks out in despairing indignation against the word " ought " as " the talisman of arrogance, indolence point of the particular theist who speaks to the ques tion.
Bentham remark, (Journ.
JEREMY BENTHAM (1748-1832), English philosopher and jurist, was born on the 15th of February 17 4 8 in Red Lion Street, Houndsditch, London, in which neighbourhood his grandfather and father successively carried on business as attorneys.
Henceforth Bentham was a frequent guest at Bowood, where he saw the best society and where he met Miss Caroline Fox (daughter of the second Lord Holland), to whom he afterwards made a proposal of marriage.
In 1785 Bentham started, by way of Italy and Constantinople, on a visit to his brother, Samuel Bentham, a naval engineer, holding the rank of colonel in the Russian service; and it was in Russia that he wrote his Defence of Usury.
This scheme, which it was alleged would render transportation unnecessary, was eventually abandoned, and Bentham received in 1813, in pursuance of an act of parliament, 2 3, 000 by way of compensation.
Emboldened perhaps by the windfall of 1813, Bentham in the following year took a lease of Ford Abbey, a fine mansion with a deer-park, in Dorsetshire; but in 1818 returned to the house in Queen's Square Place which he had occupied since the death of his father in 1792.
The services which Dumont rendered in recasting as well as translating the works of Bentham were still more important.
The popular notion that Bentham was a morose visionary is far removed from fact.
Mr Bentham received me with the simplicity of a philosopher.
Mr Bentham did not talk much.
Whether or no he can be said to have founded a school, his doctrines have become so far part of the common thought of the time, that there is hardly an educated man who does not accept as too clear for argument truths which were invisible till Bentham pointed them out.
The pursuit of such happiness is taught by the "utilitarian" philosophy, an expression used by Bentham himself in 1802, and therefore not invented by J.
In order to 'ascertain what modes of action are most conducive to the end in view, and what motives are best fitted to produce them, Bentham was led to construct marvellously exhaustive, though somewhat mechanical, tables of motives.
To be judged fairly, Bentham must be judged as a teacher of the principles of legislation.
This task Bentham undertook, and he brought to it a mind absolutely free from professional or class feeling, or any other species of prejudice.
For the history of institutions which, thanks largely to the writings of Sir Henry Maine, has become a new and interesting branch of science, Bentham cared nothing.
The logical and historical methods can, however, seldom be combined without confusion; and it is perhaps fortunate that Bentham devoted his long life to showing how much may be done by pursuing the former method exclusively.
The services rendered by Bentham to the world would not, however, be exhausted even by the practical adoption of every one of his recommendations.
See farther on the life and writings of Bentham: J.
Atkinson, Jeremy Bentham (1905).
From May 1820 till July 1821 Mill was in France in the family of Sir Samuel Bentham, brother of Jeremy Bentham.
He attributed to his early discipline in this logic an impatience of vague language which in all likelihood was really fostered in him by his study of the Platonic dialogues and of Bentham, for he always had in himself more 6f Plato's fertile ingenuity in canvassing the meaning of vague terms than the schoolman's rigid consistency in the use of them.
The essays on Bentham and Coleridge constituted the first manifesto of the new spirit which Mill sought to breathe into English Radicalism.
In philosophy his chief work was to systematize and expound the utilitarianism of his father and Bentham (see Utilitarianism).
Though he believed that the lower classes were not yet ripe for socialism, with the principles of which he (unlike James Mill and Bentham) was in general agreement, his whole life was devoted to the amelioration of the conditions of the working classes.
The great British herbaria the orders and genera of flowering plants are usually arranged according to Bentham and Hooker's Genera plantarum; the species generally follow the arrangement.
His Manual of the Law of Scotland (1839) brought him into notice; he joined Sir John Bowring in editing the works of Jeremy Bentham, and for a short time was editor of the Scotsman, which he committed to the cause of free trade.
PEACH, the name of a fruit tree which is included by Bentham and Hooker (Genera plantarum, i.
This tribunal realized an idea put forward by Jeremy Bentham towards the close of the 18th century, advocated by James Mill in the middle of the 19th century, and worked out later by Mr Dudley Field in America, by Dr Goldschmidt in Germany, and by Sir Edmund Hornby and Mr Leone Levi in England.
21; Bentham, Principles of Penal Law, bk.
The Westminster Review (1824), established by the followers of Jeremy Bentham, advocated radical reforms in church, state and legislation.
In ethics Gioja follows Bentham generally, and his large treatise Del merito e delle recompense (1818) is a clear and systematic view of social ethics from the utilitarian principle.
A system of classification for the Phanerogams, or, as they are frequently now called, Spermatophyta (seed-plants), which has been much used in Great Britain and in America, is that of Bentham and Hooker, whose Genera Plantarum (1862-1883) is a descriptive account of all the genera of flowering plants, based on their careful examination.
This idea, which occupies a prominent position in systems like those of Bentham, Volney, and even Paley, was evidently of prime importance at all events to the later Cyrenaics.
Practically speaking ancient hedonism advocated the happiness of the individual: the modern hedonism of Hume, Bentham and Mill is based on a wider conception of life.
Bentham and the associationist school generally.
In politics the revulsion from his particuar conclusions did not prevent the more clear-sighted of his opponents from recognizing the force of his supreme demonstration of the practical irresponsibility of the sovereign power, wherever seated, in the state; and, when in a later age the foundations of a positive theory of legislation were laid in England, the school of Bentham - James Mill, Grote, Molesworth - brought again into general notice the writings of the great publicist of the 17th century, who, however he might, by the force of temperament, himself prefer the rule of one, based his whole political system upon a rational regard to the common weal.
In 1808 he became acquainted with Jeremy Bentham, and was for many years his chief companion and ally.
This, which we may distinguish as the French system, finds its most perfect expression in the classic Genera Plantarum (1862-1883) of Bentham and Hooker, a work containing a description, based on careful examination of specimens, of all known genera of flowering plants.
- The reader will find in the following works details of the subject and references to the literature: Bentham and Hooker, Genera Plantarum (London, 1862-1883); Eichler, Bluthendiagramme (Leipzig, 1875-1878); Engler and Prantl, Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien (Leipzig, 1887-1899) Engler, Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien, 3rd ed.
It was revised and kept alive by Jeremy Bentham in his fanatical scheme for a "panopticon or inspection house," described as "a circular building, an iron cage glazed, a glass lantern as large as Ranelagh, with the cells on the outer circumference."
To Bentham as an advanced radical.
In 1822 he published in the Morning Chronicle (April) a letter against Canning's attack on Lord John Russell, and edited, or rather re-wrote, some discursive papers of Bentham, which he published under the title Analysis of the Influence of Natural Religion on the Temporal Happiness of Mankind by Philip Beauchamp (1822).
Mill and Bentham, whose chief principles were representative government, vote by ballot, the abolition of a state church, frequent elections.
Men thought they were witnessing the dawn of a new era in the East; Mehemet Ali was hailed as the most beneficent and enlightened of princes; and political philosophers like Jeremy Bentham, who sent him elaborate letters of good advice, thought to find in him the means for developing their theories in virgin soil.
Sir John Bowring tells us that when Bentham was casting about for such a criterion " he met with Hume's Essays and found in them what he sought.