- Jeremy Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles of Morality and Legislation; Henry Maine, Ancient Law; C. B.
Even at this stage the vindictive or retributive character of punishment remains, but gradually, and specially after the humanist movement under thinkers like Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, new theories begin to emerge.
For Flora: Maiden, Useful Native Plants of Australia (Sydney, 1889); Bentham and Mueller, Flora Australiensis (London, 1863-1878); Fitzgerald, Australian Orchids (Sydney, 1870-1890); Mueller, Census of Australian Plants (Melbourne, 1889).
Bentham remark, (Journ.
JEREMY BENTHAM (1748-1832), English philosopher and jurist, was born on the 15th of February 17 4 8 in Red Lion Street, Houndsditch, London, in which neighbourhood his grandfather and father successively carried on business as attorneys.
Henceforth Bentham was a frequent guest at Bowood, where he saw the best society and where he met Miss Caroline Fox (daughter of the second Lord Holland), to whom he afterwards made a proposal of marriage.
In 1785 Bentham started, by way of Italy and Constantinople, on a visit to his brother, Samuel Bentham, a naval engineer, holding the rank of colonel in the Russian service; and it was in Russia that he wrote his Defence of Usury.
This scheme, which it was alleged would render transportation unnecessary, was eventually abandoned, and Bentham received in 1813, in pursuance of an act of parliament, 2 3, 000 by way of compensation.
Emboldened perhaps by the windfall of 1813, Bentham in the following year took a lease of Ford Abbey, a fine mansion with a deer-park, in Dorsetshire; but in 1818 returned to the house in Queen's Square Place which he had occupied since the death of his father in 1792.
The services which Dumont rendered in recasting as well as translating the works of Bentham were still more important.
The popular notion that Bentham was a morose visionary is far removed from fact.
Mr Bentham received me with the simplicity of a philosopher.
Mr Bentham did not talk much.
Whether or no he can be said to have founded a school, his doctrines have become so far part of the common thought of the time, that there is hardly an educated man who does not accept as too clear for argument truths which were invisible till Bentham pointed them out.
The pursuit of such happiness is taught by the "utilitarian" philosophy, an expression used by Bentham himself in 1802, and therefore not invented by J.
In order to 'ascertain what modes of action are most conducive to the end in view, and what motives are best fitted to produce them, Bentham was led to construct marvellously exhaustive, though somewhat mechanical, tables of motives.
To be judged fairly, Bentham must be judged as a teacher of the principles of legislation.
This task Bentham undertook, and he brought to it a mind absolutely free from professional or class feeling, or any other species of prejudice.
For the history of institutions which, thanks largely to the writings of Sir Henry Maine, has become a new and interesting branch of science, Bentham cared nothing.
The logical and historical methods can, however, seldom be combined without confusion; and it is perhaps fortunate that Bentham devoted his long life to showing how much may be done by pursuing the former method exclusively.
The services rendered by Bentham to the world would not, however, be exhausted even by the practical adoption of every one of his recommendations.
See farther on the life and writings of Bentham: J.
Atkinson, Jeremy Bentham (1905).
From May 1820 till July 1821 Mill was in France in the family of Sir Samuel Bentham, brother of Jeremy Bentham.
He attributed to his early discipline in this logic an impatience of vague language which in all likelihood was really fostered in him by his study of the Platonic dialogues and of Bentham, for he always had in himself more 6f Plato's fertile ingenuity in canvassing the meaning of vague terms than the schoolman's rigid consistency in the use of them.
The essays on Bentham and Coleridge constituted the first manifesto of the new spirit which Mill sought to breathe into English Radicalism.
Though he believed that the lower classes were not yet ripe for socialism, with the principles of which he (unlike James Mill and Bentham) was in general agreement, his whole life was devoted to the amelioration of the conditions of the working classes.
The great British herbaria the orders and genera of flowering plants are usually arranged according to Bentham and Hooker's Genera plantarum; the species generally follow the arrangement.
His Manual of the Law of Scotland (1839) brought him into notice; he joined Sir John Bowring in editing the works of Jeremy Bentham, and for a short time was editor of the Scotsman, which he committed to the cause of free trade.
PEACH, the name of a fruit tree which is included by Bentham and Hooker (Genera plantarum, i.
This tribunal realized an idea put forward by Jeremy Bentham towards the close of the 18th century, advocated by James Mill in the middle of the 19th century, and worked out later by Mr Dudley Field in America, by Dr Goldschmidt in Germany, and by Sir Edmund Hornby and Mr Leone Levi in England.
As regards "material" goodness of actions, 'he adopts explicitly and unreservedly the formula afterwards taken as fundamental by Bentham; holding that " that action is best which procures the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers, and the worst which in a like manner occasions misery."
Accordingly his treatment of external rights and duties, though decidedly inferior in methodical clearness and precision, does not differ in principle from that of Paley or Bentham, except that he lays greater stress on the immediate conduciveness of actions to the happiness of individuals, and more often refers in a merely supplementary or restrictive way to their tendencies in respect of general happiness.
School; the latter method, with considerably more divergence of view and treatment, was employed independently and almost simultaneously by Paley and Bentham in both ethics and politics, and is at the present time widely maintained under the name of Utilitarianism.
This Paley and Bentham (after Locke) interpreted as merely the effect on the will of the pleasures or pains attached to the observance or violation of moral rules, combining with this the doctrine of Hutcheson that " general good " or " happiness " is the final end and standard of these rules; while they eliminated all vagueness from the notion of general happiness by defining it to consist in " excess of pleasure over pain " - pleasures and pains being regarded as " differing in nothing but continuance or intensity."
Bentham, no doubt, seems to go beyond the limits of experience proper in recognizing "religious " pains and pleasures in his fourfold division.
Some of the species of the genus Aegilops (now generally referred to Triticum by Bentham and Hooker and by Haeckel) Origin and may possibly have been the sources of our cultivated Y P Y forms, as they cross freely with wheats.
General: Bentham and Hooker, Genera Plantarum (London, 1862-1883); Engler and Prantl, Die natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien (Leipzig, 1889 and 1897); Strasburger, Die Coniferen and Gnetaceen (Jena, 1872); Die Angiospermen and die Gymnospermen (Jena, 1879); Histologische Beitrdge, iv.
The revision of the Australian species by Bentham well exhibits the wide range of the genera of the order in a flora generally so peculiar and restricted as that of Australia.
119 (Leipzig, 1875); Bentham and Hooker, Genera plantarum, iii.
Neither of these great divisions will well accommodate certain genera allied to Phalaris, for which Brown proposed tentatively a third group (since named Phalarideae); this, or at least the greater part of it, is placed by Bentham under the Poaceae.
(1) The opinion of Bentham that the attempt directly to suppress usury (in the modern sense) will only increase the evil is abundantly verified.