This occurred especially in the last half of the 19th century, largely owing to the abolition of the so-called beni ademprivili.
In 1865, however, it was suppressed, and one half of the beni ademprivili was assigned to the state, the other half being given to the communes, with the obligation of compensating those who claimed rights over these lands.
BENI-ISRAEL (" Sons of Israel"), a colony of Jews settled on the Malabar coast in Kolaba district, Bombay presidency, chiefly centring in the native state of Janjira.
At Beni Ounif and Colomb Bchar, in south-western Algeria, I was informed, in March 1910, that there had been no rain for about three years.
From a fresco at Beni-Hasan (c. 1700 B.C.).
At the head of a band of 300 free lances he offered his services first to the count of Barcelona; then, failing him, to Moktadir, the Arab king of Saragossa, of the race of the Beni Houd.
He made more than one attempt to be reconciled with Alphonso, but, his overtures being rejected, he turned his arms against the enemies of the Beni Houd, extending their dominions at the expense of the Christian states VI.
The whole of this line, however, was subject to future adjustments, Peru claiming all that part of the Amazon valley extending eastward to the Madeira and lying between the Beni and the east and west boundary line agreed upon by Spain and Portugal in 1750 and 1777, which is near the 7th parallel.
Evans, " The Rocks of the Cataracts of the River Madeira and the adjoining Portions of the Beni and Mamore," Quart.
The Palazzo Beni, lower down, belongs to a somewhat earlier period of the 15th century.
But a close-fitting skirt or tunic was more usual, and the Semites on the famous Beni-Hasan tombs (about the 10th or 10th century B.C.) wear richly decorated cloth FIG.
- Asiatics visiting Egypt (Beni-Hasan Tombs).
The comparative lateness of this period makes it difficult to account for the wall painting at Beni Hasan, which accurately represents the process of glass-blowing, and which is attributed to the period of the XIth dynasty.
Heuzey has pointed out, to one carried by the chief of an Asiatic tribe in a tomb of the 12th dynasty at Beni-Hasan in Egypt), while his kilted followers with helmets on their heads and lances in their hands march behind him.
1045 a vast horde of Beduins from Upper Egypt (Beni Hilal and Solaim), the ancestors of the modern nomads of Barbary.
This line has been twice modified by treaties between Bolivia and Brazil, but without the consent of Peru, which claimed all the territory eastward to the Madeira between the above-mentioned line and the Beni-Madidi rivers, the line of demarcation following the Pablo-bamba, a small tributary of the Madidi, to its source, and thence in a straight line to the village of Conima, on Lake Titicaca.
The southern half of the montana is watered by streams flowing from the eastern Andes, which go to form the river Madre de Dios or Amaru mayu, the principal branch of the river Beni, which falls into the Madeira.
1 337 by Ali V., the first of the Beni-Marin (Marinide) sultans who ruled Tlemcen, and commonly called the Black Sultan.
West of Tlemcen, owes its foundation to the attempts of the Beni-Marin rulers of Morocco to extend their sovereignty.
Idris, founder of the Idrisite dynasty of Fez, left his brother Suleiman in possession of Agadir, and the city was ruled by the Beni-Suleiman until 931, when it fell into the hands of the Fatimites.
From the Fatimites it passed into the possession of the Beni-Yala, of the Beni-Ifren branch of the Zenata Berbers, who held it as vassals of the Omayyad rulers of Spain.
Once more, under the Abd-el-Wahid, now known as the Beni-Zeiyan, from 1359 to 1553, Tlemcen enjoyed prosperity.
The Beni-Zeiyan, after the capture of Algiers in 1516 by the corsair Barbarossa gradually lost their territory to the Turks, while Tlemcen itself for forty years became tributary to the Spanish governor of Oran.
Japanese tradition ascribes the invention of color-printing to Idzumiya GonshirO, who, about the end of the i7th century, first made use of a second block to apply a tint of red (beni) to his prints.
573, a Koreishite of the tribe of Beni-Taim.
He was the founder of the fourth dynasty, and was probably born in Middle Egypt near Beni Hasan, in a town afterwards known as "Khufu's Nurse," but was connected with the Memphite third dynasty.
An affinity exists between the Berbers of Jerba and the Beni Mzab.
It contains a mausoleum of the Beni Malin dynasty.
The Arab writers who speak of the Spanish kings of the north-west as the Beni-Alfons, appear to recognize them as a royal stock derived from Alphonso I.
(5) Mzabites or Beni-Mzab, a distinct branch of the Berber race, are for the most part engaged in petty trade, and are distinguished by their sleeveless coats of many colours.
The central quarter is the home of the ruling tribe, the Beni-Mzab.
The gardens belong exclusively to the Beni-Mzab.
Aghrem Baba Saad, a small ruined town to the west of Ghardaia, is the fortified post in which the Beni-Mzab took refuge when the Turks under Salah Rais (about 1555) attempted unsuccessfully to subjugate the country.
Next to Ghardaia the most important Mzabite town is Beni-Isguen (pop. 4916), an active trading centre.
The Beni-Manassir, who rose almost at the same time in the Dahra, were subdued soon after.
This unit is also recorded by cubit lengths scratched on a tomb at Beni Hasan (44), and by dimensions of the tomb of Ramessu IV.
The Beni-abbad were not of ancient descent, though the poets, whom they paid largely, made an illustrious pedigree for them when they had become powerful.
In the Middle Kingdom necropolis of Beni Hasan, Garstang found many intact interments in coffins, and in one case the body was well preserved.
Here the Bedouins (mostly Beni Hassa) pasture flocks and herds, amounting to several million head.
In 761 it was taken by Abdurrahman ibn Rostem, the founder of the dynasty of the Beni Rustam (Rostem).
The most serious military operations were against the Beni, a peaceful mission to the king of Benin having been massacred in the bush in January 1897.
The chief towns on the Nile, taking them in their order in ascending the river from Cairo, are Beni Suef, Minia, Assiut, Akhmim, Suhag, Girga, Kena, Luxor, Esna, Edfu, Assuan and Korosko.
Beni Suef (23,357) is 77 m.
The Ibrahimia takes its water from the Nile at Assiut, and runs south to below Beni Suef.
Border of the desert are the tombs of Deshgsha, Meir and Assiflt, and on the east bank those of Beni Hasan, the rockcut temple of Speos Artemidos, the tombs of El Bersha and Sheikh Said, the tonibs and stelae of El Amarna with the alabaster quarries of, Hanub in the desert behind them, and the tombs of Deir el Gebrgwi.
According to the paintings of the Middle Kingdom in the tombs of Beni Hasan, the battlements of brick fortresses were attacked and wrenched away with long and massive spears.
The most importai* pictorial tombs of Beni Hasan belong to this age; the great princes appear to have largely quarried stone for their palaces, and to have cut the quarry in the form of a regular chamber, which served for the tomb chapel.
The nomarchs and the other feudal chiefs were inclined to strengthen themselves at the expense of their neighbors; a firm hand wa~ required to hold them in check and distribute the honors as they were earned by faithful service., The tombs of the most favored and wealthy princes are magnificent, particularly those of certain families in Middle Egypt at Beni Hasari, El Bersha, AssiUt and Deir RIfa, and it is probable that each had a court and organization within.
The fine tombs of Ameni at Beni Hasan and of Hepzefa at Assit belong to his reign.
In his reign were executed the fine paintings in the tomb of Khnemhotp at Beni Hasan, which include a remarkable scene of Semitic Bedouins bringing eye-paint to Egypt from the eastern deserts.
From that date to the spring of 1811 the beys from time to time relinquished certain of their demands; the pasha on his part granted them what before had been withheld; the province of the Fayum, and part of those of Giza and Beni-Suef, were ceded to ShahIn; and a great portion of the Said, on the condition of paying the land-tax, to the others.
To speak of more modern times there can be enumerated the Zouaoua and Jebalia (Tripoli and Tunisia); the Chauwia, Kabyles and Beni-Mzab (Algeria); the Shluh (Chlouah), Amazigh and Berbers (Morocco); the Tuareg, Amoshagh, Sorgu, &c. (Sahara).
The Beni-Abbas tribe in the Algerian Atlas is famed for its walnuts, and many tribes keep bees, chiefly for the commercial value of the wax.
Whole tribes, such as the Beni-Sliman, are occupied in the iron trade; the Beni-Abbas made firearms before the French conquest, and even cannon are said to have been made by boring.
In the western provinces about Kandahar (amongst the Durani Afghans - the people who claim to be Beni-Israel), and especially in Zamindawar, the spirit of fanaticism runs high, and every other Afghan is a possible Ghazi - a man who has devoted his life to the extinction of other creeds.
H.*) History The Afghan chroniclers call their people Beni-Israil (Arab.
Of Asmara, is the centre for a district (Bogos) fertilized by the upper course of the Anseba; Agordat, on the river Baraka, on the road from Keren to Kassala, is the centre of the Beni-Amer, Algheden and Sabderat tribes; Mogolo, on the lower Mareb, is the rendezvous of the Baria and Baza tribes.