Though rejected by the Jesuits, who found peripatetic formulae a faithful weapon against the enemies of the church, Cartesianism was warmly adopted by the Oratory, which saw in Descartes something of St Augustine, by Port Royal, which discovered a connexion between the new system and Jansenism, and by some amongst the Benedictines and the order of Ste Genevieve.
In the monastic period pharmacy was to a great extent under the control of the religious orders, particularly the Benedictines, who, from coming into contact with the Arabian physicians, devoted themselves to pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics; but, as monks were forbidden to shed blood, surgery fell largely into the hands of barbers, so that the class of barber-surgeons came into existence, and the sign of their skill in blood-letting still appears in provincial districts in England in the form of the barber's pole, representing the application of bandages.
North of Raleigh, with 371 students in 1907-1908; Davidson College (Presbyterian, 1837) at Davidson, with 308 students (1907-1908); Biddle University (Presbyterian) at Charlotte, for negroes; Greensboro Female College (Methodist Episcopal, South; 1846); Guilford College (coeducational; Society of Friends, 1837) near Greensboro; Trinity College (coeducational; Methodist, 1852) at Durham; Lenoir College (Lutheran, 1890) at Hickory; Catawba College (Reformed, 1851) at Newton; Weaverville College (Methodist Episcopal, 1873) at Weaverville; Elon College (Christian, 1890) at Elon; St Mary's College (Roman Catholic, 1877), under the charge of Benedictines, at Belmont; Shaw University (Baptist, 1865), for negroes, at Raleigh; and Livingston College (Methodist, 1879), for negroes, at Salisbury.
But the traditional account is that the books were sent to the Durham Benedictines at Oxford, and that on the dissolution of the foundation by Henry VIII.
Bessarion had intended to bequeath his books to the Benedictines of San Giorgio Maggiore, but Pietro Morosini, Venetian ambassador at Rome, pointed out the inconvenience of housing his library on an island that could not easily be reached.
The cathedral has a Romanesque Gothic portal of 1332 by a Roman marble worker named Deodatus, and the interior is decorated in the Baroque style, but still retains the pointed vaulting of 1154, introduced into Italy by French Benedictines; it contains a splendid silver antependium by the 15th-century goldsmith Nicolo di Guardiagrele (1433-48).
Cosmo Gordon Lang, 1908 Next to the cathedral, the most interesting building in York is St Mary's Abbey, situated in Museum Gardens, founded for Benedictines by Alan, lord of Richmond, in 1078, its head having the rank of a mitred abbot with a seat in parliament.
But the Benedictines, whose settlement in Hungary dates from the establishment of their monastery at Pannonhalma (c. 1 ooi), were the chief pioneers.
He was the son of a tailor, and was left an orphan in his eighth year; but, through the kindness of a friend, admission was gained for him into the military school of his native town, which was then under the direction of the Benedictines of Saint-Maur.
It was among the Benedictines that the monastic study of medicine first received a new direction, and aimed at a higher standard.
These are the Schottenhof (once belonging to the "Scoti," or Irish Benedictines) and the MÃ¶lkerhof, adjoining the open space called the Freiung, each forming a little town of itself.
The church of St James - also called Schottenkirche - a plain Romanesque basilica of the 12th century, derives its name from the monastery of Irish Benedictines ("Scoti") to which it was attached; the principal doorway is covered with very singular grotesque carvings.
There were also an Irish and a Scots college and houses of English Benedictines and Franciscans.
BENEDICTINES, or Black Monks, monks living according to the Rule of St Benedict of Nursia.
Subiaco in the Abruzzi was the cradle of the Benedictines, and in that neighbourhood St Benedict established twelve monasteries.
The chief external works achieved for western Europe by the Benedictines during the early middle ages may be summed up under the following heads.
Benedictines - Wilfrid, Willibrord, Swithbert, Willehad - who evangelized Friesland and Holland; and another, Winfrid or Boniface, who, with his fellow-monks Willibald and others,.
It was Anschar, a monk of Corbie, who first preached to the Scandinavians, and other Benedictines were apostles to Poles, Prussians and other Slavonic peoples..
As the result of their missionary enterprises the Benedictines penetrated into all these lands and established monasteries, so that by the 10th or 1 1th century Benedictine houses existed in great numbers throughout the whole of Latin Christendom except Ireland.
Accordingly these Capitula exercised a wide influence among Benedictines even outside the empire.
And Benedict of Aniane's ideas of organization found embodiment a century later in the order of Cluny (910), which for a time overshadowed the great body of mere Benedictines (see Cluny).
The English Benedictines never advanced farther along the path of centralization; up to their destruction this polity remained in operation among them, and proved itself by its results to be well adapted to the conditions of the Benedictine Rule and life.
And so in the period of the reforming councils of Constance and Basel the state of the religious orders was seriously taken in hand, and in response to the public demand for reforming the Church '4,"in head and members," reform movements were set on foot, as among others, so among the Benedictines of various parts of Europe.
In England the Benedictines had, from every point of view, flourished exceedingly.
Of the monks professed there during this momentary revival, one, Sigebert Buckley, lived on into the reign of James I.; and being the only survivor of the Benedictines of England, he in 1607 invested with the English habit and affiliated to Westminster Abbey and to the English congregation two English priests, already Benedictines in the Italian congregation.
By this act the old English Benedictine line was perpetuated; and in 1619 a number of English monks professed in Spain were aggregated by pontifical act to these representatives of the old English Benedictines, and thus was constituted the present English Benedictine congregation.
Three or four monasteries of the revived English Benedictines were established on the continent at the beginning of the 17th century, and remained there till driven back to England by the French Revolution.
The Reformation and the religious wars spread havoc among the Benedictines in many parts of northern Europe; and as a consequence, in part of the rule of Joseph II.
The chief external work of the Benedictines at the present day is secondary education; there are 114 secondary schools or gymnasia attached to the abbeys, wherein the monks teach over 12,000 boys; and many of the nunneries have girls' schools.
In certain countries (among them England) where there is a dearth of secular priests, Benedictines undertake parochial work.
The statistics of the order (1905) show that of Black Benedictines there are over 4000 choir-monks and nearly 2000 lay brothers - figures that have more than doubled since 1880.
Of Montalembert) and English Monastic Life (1904); and Newman's two essays on the Benedictines, among the Historical Sketches.
On Benedictines and the Arts see F.
Organized the Augustinian canons on the same general lines as those laid down for the Benedictines, by a system of provincial chapters and visitations.
An ancient church of the Benedictines is here situated on the top of a hill.
The island was in the possession of successive religious bodies from the Conquest (when it was given to the Benedictines of Jumieges, near Rouen), until the Dissolution.
But no remains exist of the priories of Augustinian canons at Canterbury (St Gregory's; 1084), Leeds, near Maidstone (1119), Tunbridge (middle of 12th century), Combwell, near Cranbrook (time of Henry II.); the nunnery of St Sepulchre at Canterbury (about 110o) and Langdon abbey, near Walmer (1192), both belonging to the Benedictines; the Trinitarian priory of Mottenden near Headcorn, the first house of Crutched Friars in England (1224), where miracle plays were presented in the church by the friars on Trinity Sunday; the Carmelite priories at Sandwich (1272) and Losenham near Tenterden (1241); and the preceptory of Knights of St John of Jerusalem at West Peckham, near Tunbridge (1408).
(See Cluny; Benedictines and Monasticism.) At the same time that Cluny began to grow into importance, other centres of the monastic reform movement were established in Upper and Lower Lorraine; and before long the activity of the Cluniac monks made itself felt in Italy.
The learned labours of the Benedictines were no part of the original requirements of the rule of St Benedict; but before the founder's death his favourite disciple had planted a monastery in France, and the name of that disciple is permanently associated with the learned labours of the Benedictines of the Congregation of St Maur (see Maurists) .
Many of the Jesuit schools were transferred to the congregations of the Oratoire and the Benedictines, and to the secular clergy.
Owing its real origin, as a distinct foundation of reformed Benedictines, in the year 1098, to Stephen Harding (a native of Dorsetshire, educated in the monastery of Sherborne), and deriving its name from Citeaux (Cistercium), a desolate and almost inaccessible forest solitude, on the borders of Champagne and Burgundy, the rapid growth and wide celebrity of the order are undoubtedly to be attributed to the enthusiastic piety of St Bernard, abbot of the first of the monastic colonies, subsequently sent forth in such quick succession by the first Cistercian houses, the far-famed abbey of Clairvaux (de Clara Valle), A.D.
Indeed, though the Celestines are reckoned as a branch of the Benedictines, there is little in common between them.
For all that, St Celestine, during his brief tenure of the papacy, tried to spread his ideas among the Benedictines, and induced the monks of Monte Cassino to adopt his idea of the monastic life instead of St Benedict's; for this purpose fifty Celestine monks were introduced into Monte Cassino, but on Celestine's abdication of the papacy the project fortunately was at once abandoned.
To the three original volumes of the Latin Glossarium, three supplementary volumes were added by the Benedictines of St Maur (Paris, 1733-1736), and a further addition of four volumes (Paris, 1766), by a Benedictine, Pierre Carpentier (1697-1767).
Holy Cross is a remnant of a mitred abbey of Benedictines, said to have been founded about 970 by King Edgar, on the site of a Mercian religious settlement.
These orders arose at the beginning of the 13th century, when the Benedictines, together with their various reformed branches, had terminated their active mission, and Christian Europe was ready for a new religious revival.
As comprehensive in their polity as the Benedictines or Franciscans, they gathered their members from, and soon scattered their possessions over, every country in Europe.
Behind it is a larger church, which was begun for the Benedictines about I i 50, from the designs of a French architect, in imitation of the Cluniac church at Paray-le-Monial, but never carried beyond the spring of the vaulting.
Living as a hermit on Monte Morrone near Sulmone in the Abruzzi, he attracted other ascetics about him and organized them into a congregation of the Benedictines which was later called the Celestines.
The Benedictine houses never coalesced in this manner; even when, later on, a system of national congregations was introduced, they were but loose federations of autonomous abbeys; so that to this day, though the convenient expression " Benedictine order " is frequently used, the Benedictines do not form an order in the proper sense of the word.