It was well known during the middle ages, and was largely used by William, archbishop of Tyre, for the first six books of his Belli sacri historic. In modern times its historical value has been seriously impugned, but the verdict of the best scholarship seems to be that in general it forms a true record of the events of the first crusade, although containing some legendary matter.
The M`Leod case' in which the state of New York insisted on trying a British subject, with whose trial the Federal government had no power to interfere, while the British govern - ment had declared that it would consider conviction and execu - tion a casus belli; the exercise of the hateful right of search by British vessels on the coast of Africa; the Maine boundary, as to which the action of a state might at any time bring the Federal government into armed collision with Great Britain - all these at once met the new secretary, and he felt that he had no right to abandon his work for party reasons.
Of England; and in Classicum belli scarf (1619) urged the Catholic princes to wage war upon the Protestants.
Lord Aberdeen still hoped to secure peace, and the Russian government was informed that no casus belli would arise so long as Russia abstained from passing the Danube or attacking a Black Sea port.
On the 18th of December 1895 a message was sent to the United States Congress by President Cleveland practically stating that any attempt on the part of the British Government to enforce its claims upon Venezuela as regards the boundary between that country and Guiana without resort to arbitration would be considered as a casus belli by his government.
It was very popular during the middle ages, and was used by Ordericus Vitalis for his Historiae ecclesiasticae; by William archbishop of Tyre, for his Belli sacri historia; and by Vincent of Beauvais for his Speculum historiaae.
A certain Lucius Septimius brought out Dictys Cretensis Ephemeris belli Trojani, which p rofessed to be a Latin translation of the Greek version.
In 1550 he met Sepulveda in public debate on the theses drawn from the recently published Apologia pro libro de justis belli causis, in which the latter had maintained the lawfulness of waging unprovoked war upon the natives of the New World.
ANDREA MOCENIGO, who flourished in the 15th and 16th centuries, was a senator of the republic and a historian; he composed a work on the league of Cambrai entitled Belli memorabilis Cameracensis adversus Venetos historiae libri vi.
Barbeyrac also translated Grotius's De Jure Belli et Pacis, Cumberland's De Legibus Naturae, and Pufendorf's smaller treatise De Officio Hominis et Civis.
The very name of his historic treatise, De jure belli ac pacis (1625), shows the subordination of peace to the main subject of war.
It shows that the principles and the plan of the celebrated De jure belli, which was not composed t1111625,more than twenty years after,had already been conceived by a youth of twenty-one.
The discovery of the MS. of the De jure praedae discloses the whole history of Grotius's ideas, and shows that from youth upwards he had steadily read and meditated in one direction, that, namely, of which the famous De jure belli was the mature product.
In these circumstances the De jure belli et pacis was composed.
In March 1625 the printing of the De jure belli, which had taken four months, was completed, and the edition despatched to the fair at Frankfort.
Grotius was a great jurist, and his De jure belli et pacis (Paris, 1625), though not the first attempt in modern times to ascertain the principles of jurisprudence, went far more fundamentally into the discussion than any one had done before him.
The title of the work was so far misleading that the jus belli was a very small part of his comprehensive scheme.
The De jure belli was translated into English by Whewell (3 vols., 8vo, Cambridge, 1853); into French by Barbeyrac (2 vols.
His last political achievement was to draw still closer to Russia by the treaty of the 13th of December 1769, the most important paragraph of which stipulated that any change in the Swedish constitution should be regarded by Denmark and Russia as a cases belli against Sweden, and that in the event of such a war Denmark should retain all the territory conquered from Sweden.
On the other hand, the constitution of the 13th of November had been in flat contradiction to the protocol of London, which recognized theseparate rights of the duchies; and if the two great German powers chose to make this violation of an agreement to which they had been parties a casus belli, Europe would have no right to interfere.
To Athens no formal declaration of war but rather sought first to create some specious casus belli by sending requisitions to Athens.
The latter casus belli is the more probable, though the chronicler, Florence of Worcester, asserts the protection of the sons of Duncan by England.
He was also author of prose Lucubrationes and perhaps of an epic poem on Caesar's Gallic wars (Pragmatia Belli Gallici).
Reverting to the distinction in Roman law, Grotius and Pufendorf, with many others, treat protection as an instance of unequal treaties; that is, " when either the promises are unequal, or when either of the parties is obliged to harder conditions " (De jure belli et pacis, 1 C. 13.21; De jure naturae, 8.