Bela resolutely put down all disorder.
The pope, naturally on the side of order, staunchly supported this regenerator of the realm, and in his own brother Coloman, who administered the district of the Drave, Bela also found a loyal and intelligent co-operator.
The terror of their name had long preceded them, and Bela, in 1235 or 1236, sent the Dominican monk Julian, by way of Constantinople, to Russia, to collect information about them from the "ancient Magyars" settled there, possibly the Volgan Bulgarians.
Bela did his utmost to place his kingdom in a state of defence, and appealed betimes to the pope, the duke of Austria and the emperor for assistance; but in February and March 1241 the Tatars burst through the Carpathian passes; in April Bela himself, after a gallant stand, was routed on the banks of the Saj6 and fled to the islands of Dalmatia; and for the next twelve months the kingdom of Hungary was merely a geographical expression.
First Bela solicited the aid of the pope, but was compelled finally to resort to arms, and crossing the Leitha on the 15th of June 1246, routed Frederick, who was seriously wounded and trampled to death by his own horsemen.
In the south Bela was less successful.
In 1261 the Tatars under Nogai Khan invaded Hungary for the second time, but were defeated by Bela and lost 50,000 men.
Bela reached the apogee of his political greatness in 1264 when, shortly after his crushing defeat of the Servian king, Stephen Urosh, he entertained at his court, at Kalocsa, the ambassadors of the newly restored Greek emperor, of the kings of France, Bulgaria and Bohemia and three Tatar mirzas.
For a time Bela was equally fortunate in the north-west,where the ambitious and enterprising Piemyslidae had erected a new Bohemian empire which absorbed the territories of the old Babenbergers and was very menacing to Hungary.
In particular, Bela was almost constantly at war for the possession of Styria, which ultimately fell to the Bohemians.
Bela died on the 3rd of May 1270 in his sixty-fourth year.
She bore him, besides his two sons Stephen and Bela, seven daughters, of whom St Margaret was the most famous.
BELA, a town of British India, administrative headquarters of the Partabgarh district of the United Provinces, with a railway station 80 m.
Bela, which was founded in 1802 as a cantonment, became a district headquarters after the mutiny.
On the other hand Boleslaus's ally, the fugitive Magyar prince Bela, succeeded with Polish assistance in winning the crown of Hungary.
He left his theological impress on the Bibliotheca sacra, which he and Bela B.
The Mingals, who, conjointly with the Brahuis, occupy the hills south of Kalat to the limits of the Rajput province of Las Bela, claim Mongolian descent, and traces of a Mongolian colony have been found in Makran.
Tissandier, Voyage au tour du monde (Paris, 1892); Lord Curzon, Persia and the Persian Question (London, 1892); Russia and the Anglo-Russian Question (London, 1889); Problems of the Far East (London, 1894); Captain Hamilton Bower, Diary of a Journey across Tibet (Calcutta, 1893); Szechenyi, Die wissenschaftlichen Ergebnisse der Reise des Grafen Bela Szechenyi in Ostasien (Wien, 1893); R.
Five years later, however, fearing lest his brother might stand in the way of his heir, the infant prince Stephen, Coloman imprisoned Almos and his son Bela in a monastery and had them blinded.
And Bela III.
On the death of Ninoslav in 1250, vigorous efforts were made to exterminate the Bogomil heresy; and to this end, Bela IV., who appeared as the champion of Roman Catholicism, Hungarian' secured the election of his nominee Prijesda to the banate.
He successfully supported the claims of no fewer than three pretenders to the Magyar throne, and finally made Bela III.
Bela endeavoured to strengthen his own monarchy by introducing the hereditary principle, crowning his infant son Emerich, as his successor during his own lifetime, a practice followed by most of the later Arpads; he also held a brilliant court on the Byzantine model, and replenished the treasury by his wise economies.
(1235-1270), the last man of genius whom the Arpads produced, did something to curb the aristocratic misrule which was to be one of the determining causes of the collapse Bela IV.
But he is best known as the regenerator of the realm after the cataclysm of1241-1242(see Bela Iv.).
To bind the Kumanian still more closely to his dynasty, Bela married his son Stephen V.
Other ministers were Mr Károly de Hieronymi (commerce), Dr Lukacs (finance), Ferencz de Szekely (justice, education, public worship), Bela Serenyi (agriculture) and General Hazay (national defence).
Amongst the earliest Latin works that claim attention are the " Chronicle " (Gesta Hungarorum), by the " anonymous notary " of King Bela, probably Bela II.
(see Podhradczky, 7 Bela kirdly nevtelen jegyzoje, Buda, 1861, p. 48), which describes the early ages of See Count Geza Kuun's " Lettere Ungheresi," La Rivista Europea, anno vi., vol.
Kdrnyei, Imre and others incline to the belief that it was Bela I.
As generally able writers of lyrical poetry during the earlier part of this period may be mentioned among others Francis Csaszar, Joseph Szekacs and Andrew Kunoss-also Lewis Szakal and Alexander Vachott, whose songs and romances are of an artless and simple character, and the sacred lyricist Bela Tarkanyi.
6 Besides the various translators from the English, as for instance William Gyori, Augustus Greguss, Ladislaus Arany, Sigismond Acs, Stephen Fejes and Eugene Rakosy, who, like those already incidentally mentioned, assisted in the Kisfaludy society's version of Shakespeare's complete works, metrical translations from foreign languages were successfully made by Emil Abranyi, Dr Ignatius Barna, Anthony Varady, Andrew Szabo, Charles Berczy, Julius Greguss, Lewis Doczi, Bela Eredi, Emeric Gaspar and many others.
The Grof Dormandi Kalmdn(Count Coloman Dormandi) of Bela Beresenyi (1877) is a social tragedy of the French school.
Of the novels produced by other authors between 1870 and 1880, we may mention A hol az ember kezdodik (Where the Man Begins), by Edward Kavassy (1871), in which he severely lashes the idling Magyar nobility; Az en ismeroseim (My Acquaintances), bi Lewis Tolnai (1871); and Anatol, by Stephen Toldy (1872); the versified romances Deli babok hOse (Hero of the Fata Morgana), generally ascribed to Ladislaus Arany, but anonymously published, A szerelem hOse (Hero of Love), by John Vajda (1873), and Talalkozdsok (Rencounters) by the same (1877), and A Tiinderov (The Fairy Zone), by John Bulla (1876), all four interesting as specimens of narrative poetry; Kalozdy Bela (1875), a tale of Hungarian provincial life, by Zoltan Beothy, a pleasing writer who possesses a fund of humour, and appears to follow the best English models; Edith tortenete (History of Edith), by Joseph Prem (1876); Nyomorusag iskoldja (School of Misery), by the prolific author Arnold Vertesi (1878); Tilkolt szerelem (Secret Love), by Cornelius Abranyi (1879), a social-political romance of some merit; and Uj idOk, avult emberek (Modern Times, Men of the Past), by L.
Among the newer writers on common and commercial law may be mentioned Wenczal, Zlinsky, ZsgOd, Gustave Schwarz, Alexander Plosz, Francis Nagy and Neumann; on constitutional law, Korbuly, Boncz, Stephen Kiss, Ernest Nagy, Kmety, Arthur Balogh, Ferdinandy, Bela Grunwald, Julius Andrassy and Emeric Ha j nik; on administration, George Fesiis, Kmety and Csiky; on finance, Mariska, Exner and Laszlo.
Ecsery, Geza Ferdinandy (historical and systematic politics), Arpad Zigany, Bela Foldes (political economy), Julius Mandello (political economy), Alexander Matlekovics (Hungary's administrative service; Allamhdztartds, 3 vols.), J.
Among the more authoritative writers Paul Gyulai and Zsolt Beothy represent the conservative school; younger critics, like Bela Lazar, Alexander Hevesi, H.
Tort.; Bela Lazar, A tegnap, a ma, es a holnap (Budapest, 1896-1900); Joseph Szinnyel, Magy.
The special commission, after hearing the views of Trumbic and Bratianu, recommended a line which as nearly as possible balanced the Serb and Rumanian minorities left to Rumania and Yugoslavia respectively, and secured to the latter the essentially Serb districts of Torontal county: but at the instance of the French this line was modified to include Vrsac (Versecz) and Bela Crkva (Weisskirchen) in Yugoslavia.
Bela III >>
Above sea-level, and present some of the wildest scenery, are: the Kohlbach Valley, the Felka Valley, the Valley of Mengsdorf, the Javorina Valley, the Kotlina Valley, in which is the stalactite cavern of Bela, and the Bielka Valley.
By rail, west of Kormend is the small town of Szent Gotthard (pop., 2055, mostly Germans), with a Cistercian abbey, founded by King Bela III.
Principal mountains of the district: (i) a lofty range which separates it from the Sironcha district; (2) a range of equal height called the Bela Dila lying in the centre of the district; (3) a range running N.
Educated at the Byzantine court, where he had been compelled to seek refuge, he was fortunate enough to win the friendship of the brilliant emperor Manuel who, before the birth of his own son Alexius, intended to make Bela his successor and betrothed him to his daughter.
Initiated from childhood in all the arts of diplomacy at what was then the focus of civilization, and as much a warrior by nature as his imperial kinsman Manuel, Bela showed himself from the first fully equal to all the difficulties of his peculiar position.
The attempt to recover Dalmatia, which involved Bela in two bloody wars with Venice (1181-88 and 1190-91), was only partially successful.
In his last years Bela assisted the Greek emperor Isaac II.
His first wife bore Bela two sons, Emerich and Andrew.