Until then the Venetians held the carrying trade of India, which was brought by the Persian Gulf and Red sea into Syria and Egypt, the Venetians receiving the products of the East at Alexandria and Beirut and distributing them over Europe.
From his reign therefore Antioch may be regarded as a dependency of Jerusalem; and thus the end of Baldwin's reign (1131) may be said to mark the time when the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem stands complete, with its own boundaries stretching from Beirut in the north to el-Arish and Aila in the south, and with the three Frankish powers of the north admitting its suzerainty.
Some of the coast towns, too, were recovered by the German crusaders, especially Beirut; and in 1198 the new king Amalric II.
In 1229 this commission was overthrown by John of Ibelin, lord of Beirut, against whom it had taken proceedings.
John of Beirut, like many of the Cypriot barons, was also a baron of the kingdom of Jerusalem; and resistance in the one kingdom could only produce difficulties in the other.
The position became more difficult, when the legate took steps against John of Beirut without any authorization from the high court.
A gild was formed at Acre - the gild of St Adrian - which, if nominally religious in its origin, soon came to represent the political opposition to Frederick, as was significantly proved by its reception of the rebellious John of Beirut as a member (1232).
Under the present Ottoman distribution " Syria " is the province of Sham or Damascus, exclusive of the vilayets of Aleppo and Beirut and the sanjaks of Lebanon and Jerusalem, which all fall in what is called Syria is the wider geographical sense.
Except for Jerusalem, we have hardly any accurate meteorological observations; there the mean annual temperature is about 63° F.; in Beirut it is about 68°.
The rainfall in Jerusalem is 36.22 in., in Beirut 21.66.
The mission of the American Presbyterian Church, which has had its centre in Beirut for the last sixty years, has done much for Syria, especially in the spread of popular education; numerous publications issue from its press, and its medical school has been extremely beneficial.
The political status of the country is controlled by the Ottoman Empire, of which Syria makes part, divided into the vilayets of Aleppo, Sham or Syria (Damascus), the Lebanon (q.v.) and Beirut, and the separate sanjaks or mutessarifliks of Zor and Jerusalem.
Railways run from Beirut to Homs, Hamah, Aleppo and Damascus (French), and to the latter also from Haifa (Turkish).
From Jaffa a short line runs to Jerusalem, and a steam tramway connects Beirut with Tripoli.
There are carriage roads radiating from Aleppo to the sea at Alexandretta, and to Aintab; and Antioch is also connected with Alexandretta; Beirut and Horns with Tripoli; Damascus with Beirut; and Nazareth with Haifa.
The only good harbours are those of Beirut and Alexandretta (Iskanderun).
(3) Damascus, a district which included Baalbek, Tripoli and Beirut, and also the I;Iauran.
In the crusading period the kingdom of Jerusalem, whose rulers were never able to establish a foothold to the east of the Jordan, extended northwards to Beirut; next to it lay the countship of Tripoli on the coast; and beyond that in north Syria was the principality of Antioch.
The BaX,uapaws (near Beirut) apparently presided over dancing; another compound (in Cyprus) seems to represent a Baal of healing.
The meridian distance between the Straits of Gibraltar and Beirut in Syria amounts upon them to about 3000 Portolano miles, equal in lat.
The following towns have over 50,000 inhabitants each: Constantinople, 1,150,000; Smyrna, 250,000; Bagdad, 145,000; Damascus, 145,000; Aleppo, 122,000; Beirut, 118,000; Adrianople, 81,000; Brusa, 76,000; Jerusalem, 56,000; Caesarea Mazaca (Kaisarieh), 72,000; Kerbela, 65,000; Monastir, 53,000; Mosul, 61,000; Mecca, 60,000; Homs, 60,000; Sana, 58,000; Urfa, 55,000; and Marash, 52,000.
Among the Christians, especially the Armenians, the Greeks of Smyrna and the Syrians of Beirut, it has long embraced a considerable range of subjects, such as classical Greek, Armenian and Syriac, as well as modern French, Italian and English, modern history, geography and medicine.
The chief centres of export are Adrianople (more than half), Constantinople and Smyrna, the others being Brusa, Beirut, Ismid, Mytilene and Salonica.
A railway, however, connects southward with the Beirut-Damascus line at Rayak.
His daughter Julia died at Beirut, and before long he received the news of his election by a constituency (Bergues) in the department of the Nord.
Wright of Beirut, casts were taken and the stones themselves sent to Constantinople by Subhi Pasha of Damascus.
Cheikho's Poetesses of the Jahiliyya, in Arabic, Beirut, 1897).
By aouis Cheikho in his aes Poetes arabes chretiens, pp. 439-474, Beirut, 1890; in this work many Arabian poets are considered to be Christian without sufficient reason).
Power in the Melanges de la faculte orientate de l'universite Saint-Joseph, Beirut, 1906).
Beirut, 1856, 1872).
Beirut, various years).
BEIRUT or BEYROUT.
It includes five sanjaks, Latakia, Tripoli, Beirut, Acre and Buka'a.
To this period probably belong an inscription of Nebuchadrezzar on the north bank of the Nahr el-Kelb near Beirut, and another the Wadi Brissa in the Lebanon.
In the time of the first crusades the main power was in the hands of the Arslan family, which, however, suffered so severely in wars with the Franks, that it was superseded by the Tnuhs, who, holding Beirut and nearly all the Phoenician coast, came into conflict with the sultans of Egypt.
Syrian region from the edge of the Antioch plain to Acre, with part of the eastern desert, dominated by his castle at Tadmor (Palmyra), and the important towns of Latakia, Tripoli, Beirut and Saida; and forming further ambitious designs, he intrigued with Christians and broke with the Turks.
In accordance with the recommendation of the European powers the Porte determined to appoint a Christian governor not belonging to the district, and independent of the pasha of Beirut, to hold office for three years.
The construction of a carriage road to Tripoli led to a partial revival of prosperity and to an export of cereals and fruit, and this growth has, in turn, been accentuated by the railway, which now connects it with Aleppo and the Damascus-Beirut line.
The tendency to a celibate clergy increases, together with other romanizing usages, promoted by the papal legate in Beirut, the Catholic missioners, and the higher native clergy who are usually educated in Rome or at St Sulpice.
The sees are Aleppo, Baalbek, Tripoli, Ehden, Damascus, Beirut, Tyre, Cyprus and Jebel' (held by the patriarch himself ex officio).
Feudalism died hard, but since 1860 has been practically extinct; and so far as the Maronites own a chief of their own people it is the "Patriarch of Antioch and the whole East," who resides at Bkerkeh near Beirut in winter, and at a hill station (Bdiman or Raifun) in summer.
Diduna), formerly the principal city of Phoenicia, now a small town of about 15,000 inhabitants, situated on the Syrian coast between Beirut and Stir (Tyre).