Beetroot, molasses and grain are the chief sources of spirit.
Sugar.The manufacture of sugar is carried on in the departments of the north, in which the cultivation of beetroot is general Aisne, Nord, Somme, Pas-de-Calais, Oise and Seine-et-Marne, the three first being by far the largest producers.
A good example of a fairly typical case is afforded by Heterodera schachtii, which attacks beetroot and causes great loss to the Continental sugar manufacturers.
Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) is used as fodder, and yields about 10 tons per acre.
The beetroot-sugar industry has attained considerable proportions in Umbria, the Marches, Lazio, Venetia and Piedmont since 1890.
In consequence of these more favourable conditions there is greater variety in the cropping; a good deal of wheat is grown, as well as beetroot for sugar, fibre plants and oleaginous plants, fruit, and even (W.
Beetroot (6-8 million tons annually) for sugar is especially cultivated in Poland, the governments of Kiev, Podolia, Volhynia, Kharkov, Bessarabia and Kherson.
The principal crops are potatoes, rye and oats, but wheat and barley are grown in the more fertile districts; tobacco, flax, hops and beetroot are also cultivated.
The principal crops are wheat, rye, oats, barley, maize, hemp, flax, potatoes, beetroot and tobacco.
The principal products are corn, oats, barley, potatoes, rye, beetroot, hemp, flax, hay and other fodder.
The principal crops are rye, oats, barley, buckwheat, potatoes, though wheat, beetroot, flax, hemp and tobacco are also grown.
Near Doboj, on the Bosna, there is a state sugar-refinery, for which beetroot is largely grown in the vicinity.
The sugar industry has made great strides, the amount of beetroot used having increased tenfold between 1880 and 1905.
A large yellow tulip (Homerica pallida) is one of the most abundant flowers on moist vlei lands on the high veld and is occasionally met with in the low veld; slangkop (Urginea Burkei) with red bulbs like a beetroot is a low bush plant apparently restricted to the Transvaal and adjacent Portuguese territory.
In addition to the manufacture of woollen wares, for which it has long been known, there is now extensive production of vinegar, paraffin, potash and especially beetroot-sugar; while the surrounding district, which was formerly devoted in great part to marketgardening, is now turned almost entirely into beetroot fields.
Extraction of cane juice by diffusion (a process more fully described under the head of beetroot sugar manufacture) is adopted in a few plantations in Java and Cuba, in Louisiana Etr cti o n and the Hawaiian Islands, and in one or two factories y f i in Egypt; b u t hitherto, except under exceptional conditions (as at Aska, in the Madras Presidency, where the local price for sugar is three or four times the London price), it would not seem to offer any substantial advantage over double or triple crushing.
A ton, and where steam is raised by coal, as in a beetroot factory, it might pay to adopt a quintuple-effect apparatus, but on a cane-sugar estate, where the steam necessary for the evaporator is raised by burning the megass as fuel, and is first used in the engines workifig the mills, the exhaust alone passing to the evaporator, there would be very little, if any, advantage in employing a quadruple effect instead of a triple effect, and practically none at all in having a quintuple-effect apparatus, for the interest and sinking fund on the extra cost would more than counterbalance the saving in fuel.
The weight per acre, the saccharine contents of the juice, and the quotient of purity compared favourably with the best results obtained in Germany or France, and with those achieved by the Suffolk farmers, who between 1868 and 1872 supplied Mr Duncan's beetroot sugar factory at Lavenham; for the weight of their roots rarely reached 15 tons per acre, and the percentage of sugar in the juice appears to have varied between 10 and 12.
Therefore, roughly speaking, one ton of beetroot may be considered 'to-day as of the same value as one ton of canes; the value of the refuse chips in one case, as food for cattle, being put against the value of the refuse bagasse, as fuel, in the other.
Before beetroot had been brought to its present state of perfection, and while the factories for its manipulation were worked with hydraulic presses for squeezing the juice out of the pulp produced in the raperies, the cane sugar planter in the West Indies could easily hold his own, notwithstanding the artificial competition created and maintained by sugar bounties.
In beetroot sugar manufacture the operations are washing, slicing, diffusing, saturating, sulphuring, evaporation, concentration and curing.
These cakes, sold as food for cattle, fetch as much as £4 per ton in Rumania, where four or five beetroot factories are now at work.
The total saving effected is stated to be equivalent to 3 francs per ton of beetroot worked up. This system is also being tried on a small scale with sugar-cane juice in the West Indies.
As in the beetroot factories, these machines work on different systems, but nearly all are arranged to turn out sugar in lumps or tablets presenting an appearance similar to that of loaf sugar made in moulds, as this kind of sugar meets with the greatest demand.
- Systematic feeding for the vacuum pan and systematic washing of the massecuite have been recently introduced not only into refineries, but also into sugar houses or factories on plantations of both cane and beetroot, and great advantages have resulted from their employment.
In 1747 Andreas Sigismund Marggraf, director of the physical classes in the Academy of Sciences, Berlin, discovered the existence of common sugar in beetroot and in numerous other fleshy roots which grow in temperate regions.
And beetroot factories were established at many centres both in Germany and in France.
In the valleys the soil is particularly fertile, yielding luxuriant crops of wheat, maize, barley, spelt, beans, potatoes, flax, hemp, hops, beetroot and tobacco; and even in the more mountainous parts rye, wheat and oats are extensively cultivated.
It has manufactures of cloth, leather, chemicals and optical instruments; large quantities of beetroot sugar are produced in the neighbourhood; and there is a considerable transit trade on the Elbe.
Since 1864 agricultural implements, steam-engines, and machinery for beetroot sugar-works, distilleries, &c., have been the chief manufactures.
The mild climate assists the growth of esculent plants and roots; and a considerable trade is carried on with New York, principally in onions, early potatoes, tomatoes, and beetroot, together with lily bulbs, cut flowers and some arrowroot.
The diand tri-methyl derivatives are found in the fusel oil obtained by fermentation of beetroot sugar.
Cotton and woollen goods of all kinds are also made in large quantities, and among the other industrial products are beetroot sugar, spirits, chemicals, tobacco, starch, paper, pottery, and "Bohemian glass."
The soil cannot, as a rule, be termed rich, although some parts are fertile and produce cereals, vegetables, beetroot and fruit.
Flax and beetroot are also cultivated on the clay lands.
The usual cereal crops are, however, all grown with success, and tobacco, hops, flax, rape, hemp and beetroot (for sugar) are cultivated for commercial purposes.
Linen is largely made at Gladbach, leather at Malmedy, glass in the Saar district and beetroot sugar near Cologne.
The extensive cultivation of beetroot, of potatoes for distilleries, and of fodder crops has led to the introduction of a rotation of several years instead of the former " three-fields " system; and agricultural machinery is in more general use, especially on the larger estates of the west.
Beetroot is largely grown for the manufacture of sugar.
Beetroot is also grown to a limited extent for the manufacture of sugar.
In the valleys of the Waksh and Pro- and the Surkhab to the north of Darwaz, which form an important part of the province of Karategin, maple, ash, hawthorn, pistachio, and juniper grow freely in the mountain forests, and beetroot, kohl rabi, and other vegetables are widely cultivated.
The corresponding potash compounds are not manufactured in the United Kingdom, but exclusively in Germany (from potassium chloride and from the mother-liquor of the strontia process in the manufacture of beetroot sugar) and in France (from vinasse).
In 1747 he published an account of experiments undertaken with the definite view of obtaining true sugar from indigenous plants, and found that for this purpose the first place is taken by beetroot and carrot, that in those plants sugar like that of cane exists ready formed, and that it may be extracted by boiling the dried roots in alcohol, from which it is deposited on cooling.
The chief cereal cultivated is wheat; oats, colza, flax and beetroot are also grown.
The common vegetables also are plentiful and cheap, but only a few, such a1 the broad-bean, egg-plant (Solanum melongena), onion, carrot, beetroot, black turnip, are appreciated by the natives, who gener.
A third Belgian company, Socit anonyme pour Ia fabrication du sucre en Perse, with a large capital, then came to Persia, and began making beetroot sugar in the winter of 1895.
Apart from cereals, the principal crops are beans, potatoes, beetroot and tobacco.
There is here a denser population, occupied in the cultivation of wheat, beetroot and fruit, the breeding of excellent cattle, shipping and industrial pursuits.
Saxony is on the whole the most fertile province of Prussia and excels all the others in its produce of wheat and beetroot for sugar, but the nature of its soil is very unequal.
The beetroot for sugar is grown chiefly in the district to the north of the Harz, as far as the Ohre, and on the banks of the Saale; and the amount of sugar produced is nearly as much as that of all the rest of Prussia together.
Beetroot for sugar, grain and fruit are also grown.
Agriculture is highly developed; cereals, principally wheat and oats, and beetroot are the chief crops; potatoes, flax, hemp, rape and hops are also grown.