The Carabidae, or ground-beetles, comprising 13,000 species, form FIG.
The identification of the elytra of beetles with the fore-wings of other insects has indeed been questioned (1880) by F.
As regards growth after hatching, all beetles undergo a "complete" metamorphosis, the wing-rudiments developing beneath the cuticle throughout the larval stages, and a resting pupal stage intervening between the last larval instal1 and the imago.
The luminous organs of these beetles consist of a specialized part of the fat-body, with an inner opaque and an outer transparent layer.
Coming to the Tertiary we find the Oligocene beds of Aix, of east Prussia (amber) and of Colorado, and the Miocene of Bavaria, especially rich in remains of beetles, most of which can be referred to existing genera.
Two very small families of aquatic beetles seem to stand at the base of the series, the Amphizoidae, whose larvae are broad and well armoured with FIG.
In male beetles, however, the two pairs of genital processes (paramera) belonging to the ninth abdominal segment are always present, though sometimes reduced.
Ganglbauer (1892) divides the whole order into two sub-orders only, the Caraboidea (the Adephaga of Sharp and the older writers) and the Cantharidoidea (including all other beetles), since the larvae of Caraboidea have five-segmented, two-clawed legs, while those of all other beetles have legs with four segments and a single claw.
Lameere (1900) has suggested three sub-orders, the Cantharidif ormia (including the Phytophaga, the Heteromera, the Rhynchophora and most of the Polymorpha of Sharp's classification), the Staphyliniformia (including the rove-beetles, carrion-beetles and a few allied' amilies of Sharp's Polymorpha), and the Carabidiformia (Adephaga).
Horn placed the Rhynchophora (weevils) in a group distinct from all other beetles, on account of their supposed primitive nature.
Kolbe, on the other hand, insists that the weevils are the most modified of all beetles, being highly specialized as regards their adult structure, and developing from legless maggots exceedingly different from the adult; he regards the Adephaga, with their active armoured larvae with two foot-claws, as the most primitive group of beetles, and there can be little doubt that the likeness between larvae and adult may safely be accepted as a primitive character among insects.
The generalized arrangement of the wing-nervure and the nature of the larva, which is less unlike the adult than in other beetles, distinguish this tribe as primitive, although the perfect insects are, in the more dominant families, distinctly specialized.
The beetles are ovoid in shape, with smooth contours, and the elytra fit over the edges of the abdomen so as to enclose a supply of air, available for use when the insect remains under water.
The beetles are elegant insects with long, slender legs, running quickly, and flying in the sunshine.
Riding past the pond where there used always to be dozens of women chattering as they rinsed their linen or beat it with wooden beetles, Prince Andrew noticed that there was not a soul about and that the little washing wharf, torn from its place and half submerged, was floating on its side in the middle of the pond.
Deidre paused beside the bubbling nest of beetles the size of her hand. Katie watched as she picked up one, peered at it and then flung it. Deidre giggled.
Firefly is a term popularly used for certain tropical American click-beetles (Pyrophorus), due to their power of emitting light.
The name "firefly" is often applied also to luminous beetles of the family Lampyridae, to which the well-known glow-worm belongs.
It is possibly for the purpose of feeding on parasitic mites that book-scorpions lodge themselves beneath the wing-cases of large tropical beetles; and the same explanation, in default of a better, may be extended to their well-known and oft-recorded habit of seizing hold of the legs of horse-flies or other two-winged insects.
In many beetles the hindwings are reduced to mere vestiges useless for flight, or are altogether absent, and in such cases the two elytra are often fused together at the suture; thus organs originally intended for flight have been transformed into an armour-like covering for the beetle's hind-body.
Tower (1903), of nervures similar to those of the hind-wing, and by the proof that the small membranous structures present beneath the elytra of certain beetles, believed by Meinert to represent the whole of the true fore-wings, are in reality only the alulae.
The tergite of the prothorax (pronotum) is prominent in all beetles, reaching back to the bases of the elytra and forming a substantial shield for the front part of the body.
2, a), while in many beetles that burrow into the earth or climb about on trees the fore-legs are broadened and strengthened for digging, or lengthened and modified for clinging to branches.
- Water Beetles (Dyticidae).
In the structure of the digestive system, beetles resemble most other mandibulate insects, the food-canal consisting of gullet, crop, gizzard, mid-gut or stomach, intestine and rectum.
The nervous system is remarkably concentrated in some beetles, the abdominal ganglia showing a tendency to become shifted forward and crowded together, and in certain chafers all the thoracic and abdominal ganglia are fused into a single nervecentre situated in the thorax, - a degree of specialization only matched in the insectan class among the Hemiptera and some muscid flies.
The most striking feature in the development of beetles is the great diversity noticeable in the outward form of the larva in different families.
Extremes we find various transitional forms: an active larva, as described above, but with four-segmented, single-clawed legs, as among the rove-beetles and their allies; the body well armoured, but slender and worm-like, with very short legs as in wireworms and mealworms (figs.
Most of the dominant families - such as the Carabidae (ground-beetles), Scarabaeidae (chafers), or Curculionidae (weevils) have a distribution as wide as the order.
But while some large families, such as the Staphylinidae (rove-beetles) are especially abundant on the great northern continents, becoming scarcer in the tropics, others, the Cicindelidae (tiger-beetles), for example, are most strongly represented in the warmer regions of the earth, and become scarce as the collector journeys far to south or north.
The distribution of many groups of beetles is restricted in correspondence with their habits; the Cerambycidae (longhorns), whose larvae are wood-borers, are absent from timberless regions, and most abundant in the great tropical forests.
The Amphizoidae, for example, a small family of aquatic beetles, are known only from western North America and Eastern Tibet, while an allied family, the Pelobiidae, inhabit the British Isles, the Mediterranean region, Tibet and Australia.
The beetles of the British islands afford some very interesting examples of restricted distribution among species.
In general it may be stated that beetles live and feed in almost all the diverse ways possible for insects.
Some of the scavengers, like the burying beetles, inter the bodies of small vertebrates to supply food for themselves and their larvae, or, like the "sacred" beetle of Egypt, collect for the same purpose stores of dung.
Many beetles of different families have become the "unbidden guests" of civilized man, and may be found in dwelling-houses, stores and ships' cargoes, eating food-stuffs, paper, furniture, tobacco and drugs.
Hence we find that beetles of some kind can hold their own anywhere on the earth's surface.
A large number of beetles inhabit the deep limestone caves of Europe and North America, while many genera and some whole families are at home nowhere but in ants' nests.
Most remarkable is the presence of a number of beetles along the seashore between tide-marks, where, sheltered in some secure nook, they undergo immersion twice daily, and have their active life confined to the few hours of the low ebb.
Many beetles make a hissing or chirping sound by rubbing a "scraper," formed by a sharp edge or prominence on some part of their exoskeleton, over a "file" formed by a number of fine ridges situate on an adjacent region.
The file may be on the head - either upper or lower surface - and the scraper formed by the front edge of the prothorax, as in various wood-boring beetles (Anobium and Scolytus).
In a large number of beetles of different families, stridulating areas occur on various segments of the abdomen, and are scraped by the elytra.
Stridulating organs among beetle-larvae have been noted, especially in the wood-feeding grub of the stag-beetles (Lucanidae) and their allies the Passalidae, and in the dung-eating grubs of the dor-beetles (Geotrupes), which belong to the chafer family (Scarabaeidae).
Whatever may be the true explanation of stridulating organs in adult beetles, sexual selection can have had nothing to do with the presence of these highly-developed larval structures.
Some beetles emit a bright light from a portion of their bodies, which leads to the recognition of mate or comrade by sight.
The well-known "fire-flies" of the tropics are large click-beetles (Elateridae), that emit light from paired spots on the prothorax and from the base of the ventral abdominal region.
But a number of the more brightly coloured ground-beetles run actively in the sunshine.
Blind Carabidae form a large proportion of cave dwelling beetles, and several species of great interest live between tide-marks along the seashore.
The beetles are fierce Antenna of Larva of Gyrinus.
The Paussidae are a very remarkable family of small beetles, mostly tropical, found only in ants' nests, or flying by night, and apparently migrating from one nest to another.
COLEOPTERA, a term used in zoological classification for the true beetles which form one of the best-marked and most natural of the orders into which the class Hexapoda (or Insecta) has been divided.
The chin (gula) is a very characteristic stlerite in beetles, absent only in a few families, such as the weevils.