The competition of the sugar-beet has been felt severely.
Sugar beet is extensively grown to supply the sugar factories.
Berlin is a flourishing manufacturing town, and contains a beet sugar refinery, automobile, leather, furniture, shirt and collar, felt, glove, button and rubber factories.
The beet sugar, fruit and other agricultural products of the surrounding and tributary section were valued in 1906 at about $20,000,000.
Indirectly from beet-root molasses.
- Sow asparagus, sea-kale, Turnip-rooted beet, salsafy, scorzonera, skirret, carrots and onions on heavy soils; also marrow peas, Longpod and Windsor beans, turnips, spinach, celery, RIII.
Beet is chiefly grown as feeding stuff for cattle, and not for sugar.
Potatoes, hemp, turnips, hops, tobacco and beet are also extensively grown, the latter, in connexion with the sugar industry, showing each year a larger return.
B.-Beet sugar (compiled from data furnished by the Statistisches Bureau fur die Riibenzucker Industrie des Deutschen Reiches, of Mr F.
Alcohol is made from the refuse molasses obtained from these beet-sugar factories.
It suits many of the esculent crops, as onions, beans, cabbages, carrots, beet-root, asparagus, &c.; the quantity applied varies from 5 to to bushels per acre.
Propagate all sorts of pot-herbs, and attend to the hoeing and thinning of spinach, onions, turnips, carrots, beet, &c. Earth up cabbages, cauliflower, peas, beans and early potatoes.
There are two centres of the beet sugar production: Magdeburg for the districts Prussian Saxony, Hanover, Brunswick, Anhalt and Thuringia, and Frankfort-on-Oder at the centre of the group Silesia, Brandenburg and Pomerania.
Beet is extensively grown.
Of Bay City, are beet-sugar factories - sugar beets are extensively grown in the vicinity.
The sugar beet is a cultivated variety of Beta maritima (nat.
The quantities of cane sugar are based on the trade circulars of Messrs Wil ett & Gray of New York; those of beet sugar on the trade circulars of Messrs F.
The Rhine valley is in great part fertile, yielding good crops of potatoes, cereals (including maize), sugar beet, hops, tobacco, flax, hemp and products of oleaginous plants.
Climate and soil are favourable: beet-root is grown up to an altitude of I, too ft.
The city's principal manufactures are beet sugar, barrels and other cooperage products, wagons, carriages, sleighs and agricultural implements.
Beet-rot, turnip disease, wet-rot of potatoesthat we have to consider each case separately.
Holland is a grain and fruit shipping centre, and among its manufactures are furniture, leather, grist mill products, iron, beer, pickles, shoes, beet sugar, gelatine, biscuit (Holland rusk), electric and steam launches, and pianos.
In the town of Raymond is a large beet sugar manufactory, and in the vicinity great quantities of beets are grown by irrigation.
In1907-1908all the sugar produced from cane grown in the United States came from Louisiana (335,000 long tons) and Texas (12,000 tons); in the same year cane sugar from Hawaii amounted to 420,000 tons, from Porto Rico to 217,000 tons and from the Philippines to 135,000 tons; and the total yield of beet sugar from the United States was 413,954 tons.
Under the conditions of free labour, the development of railways abroad, the improvement of machinery both in cane and beet producing countries, the general competition of the beet, and the fall of prices, it was impossible for the Cuban industry to survive without radical betterment of methods.
Other articles of export are chemicals, dyeing and tanning stuffs, tobacco, sugar-beet and kitchen-salt.
Apart from the sugar-cane and the beet, which are dealt with in detail below, a brief reference need only be made here to maple sugar, palm sugar and sorghum sugar.
The first to establish a beet-sugar factory was his pupil and successor, Franz Carl Achard, at Cunern (near Breslau) in Silesia in 180r.
Exportation had long ceased, partly owing to the bountied competition of beet sugar, and partly because the people had become able to afford the consumption of a greater quantity than they produced; and German and Austrian sugars were pouring into the country to supply the deficiency.
When, in April 1908, Mr Asquith became premier, and Mr Lloyd George chancellor of the exchequer, the sugar convention The world's trade in cane and beet sugar in tons avoirdupois at decennial periods from 1840 to 1870, inclusive, and yearly from 1871 to 1901 inclusive, with the percentage of beet sugar and the average price per cwt.
Quantities of raw and refined cane and beet sugar in tons avoirdupois imported into the United Kingdom in 1870 and in 1875, and yearly from 1880 to 1901 inclusive, with the consumption per head of the population in lb and the price per cwt.
The cane and beet sugar crops of the world for 1909-1910, with the average of the crops fdr the seven preceding years from 1902-1903.
Agar Beet, G.
Beet sugar is also largely manufactured, and the inhabitants of the Black Forest have long been celebrated for their dexterity in the manufacture of wooden ornaments and toys, musical boxes and organs.
Fremont is situated in a good agricultural region; oil and natural gas abound in the vicinity; and the city has various manufactures, including boilers, electro-carbons, cutlery, bricks, agricultural implements, stoves and ranges, safety razors, carriage irons, sash, doors, blinds, furniture, beet sugar, canned vegetables, malt extract, garters and suspenders.
Czechoslovakia is the only European State which can export sugar: it is the second largest beet-sugar producer in the world, having I some 500,000 ac. of beet under cultivation.
The chief agricultural products are potatoes and vegetables, beet-root and hops, wheat, rye, barley and oats.
Duces beet (for sugar), and hops are largely grown in Bavaria, ____________________________ WUrttemberg, Alsace, Baden Kingdoms and the Prussian province of Prussia Posen Bavaria Speaking generally, northern Saxony .
A large sugar-beet industry has also sprung up here in modern times.
Lettuce, endive, beet, radish, cress; cereals; and fodder plants such as lucerne and carob.
The principal manufactures are woollen, linen, cotton, cast-iron goods, beet-sugar, leather and brandy.
The slices so blown up, or elevated, are passed through a mill which expels the surplus water, and are then pressed into cakes and dried until they hold about 12% of water and 88% of beet fibre.
Beet, The Last Things (new ed., 1905); W.
- Sow main crop of beet in the first week, small salads every week, radishes and lettuces thrice, spinach once a fortnight, carrots and onions for late drawing, kidney-beans in the first week and together with scarlet runners in the last fortnight; endive for an early crop; also peas and Longpod and Windsor beans, cauliflowers, Early York or Little Pixie cabbages, Brussels sprouts, borecole, broccoli, savoys and kale for late crops.
In the industrial regions of northern France cattle are stall-fed with the waste products of the beet-sugar factories, oil-works and distilleries.
Metamorphosis.It has already been pointed out that each kind of member of the body may present a variety of forms. For example, a stem may be a tree-trunk, or a twining stem, or a tendril, or a thorn, or a creeping rhizome, or a tuber; a leaf may be a green foliage-leaf, or a scale protecting a bud, or a tendril, or a pitcher, or a floral leaf, either sepal, petal, stamen or carpel (sporophyll); a root may be a fibrous root, or a swollen tap-root like that of the beet or the turnip. All these various forms are organs discharging some special function, and are examples of what Wolff called modification, and Goethe metamorphosis.
About 1760 the Berlin apothecary Marggraff obtained in his laboratory, by means of alcohol, 6.2% of sugar from a white variety of beet and 4.5% from a red variety.
There are manufactures of linen, cigars, beet-root sugar and beer.
At the present day, thanks to the careful study of many years, the improvements of cultivation, the careful selection of seed and suitable manuring, especially with nitrate of soda, the average beet worked up contains 7% of fibre and 93% of juice, and yields in Germany 12.79% and in France 11.6% of its weight in sugar.
Trimethylamine, (CH3)3N, is very similar to dimethylamine, and condenses to a liquid which boils at 3.2-3.8° C. It is usually obtained from "vinasses," the residue obtained from the distillation of beet sugar alcohol, and is used in the manufacture of potassium bicarbonate by the Solvay process, since its hydrochloride is much more soluble than potassium carbonate.
Cane sugar has been known for many centuries; milk sugar was obtained by Fabrizio Bartoletti in 1615; and in the middle of the 18th century Marggraf found that the sugars yielded by the beet, carrot and other roots were identical with cane sugar.
Under the bounty system, by which the protectionist countries of Europe stimulated the beet sugar industry by bounties on exports, the production of sugar in bounty-paying countries was encouraged and pushed far beyond the limits it could have reached without state aid.
The processes of evaporation and concentration are carried on as they are in a cane sugar factory, but with this advantage, that the beet solutions are freer from gum and glucose than those obtained from sugar-canes, and are therefore easier to cook.
In some factories for refining sugar made from beet or canes this system of carbonatation is used, and enables the refiner to work with syrups distinctly alkaline and to economize a notable amount of animal charcoal.