Vegetable wax, which is an excellent substitute for beeswax, is a product of the carnahuha palm (Copernicia cerifera), and is an important export from Ceara.
The principal exports are rubber, sugar, ground-nuts and oil seeds, beeswax, chromite (from Rhodesia), and gold (from Manica).
Slaves, beeswax, coffee, cotton and hides were formerly the chief articles of commerce.
Moulds for reproducing plates or art-work are often taken in plaster, beeswax mixed with Venice turpentine, fusible metal, or guttapercha, and the surface being rendered conductive by powdered black-lead, copper is deposited upon it evenly throughout.
The produce of the Eastern Islands is also collected at its ports for re-exportation to India, China and Europe - namely, gold-dust, diamonds, camphor, benzoin and other drugs; edible bird-nests, trepang, rattans, beeswax, tortoiseshell, and dyeing woods from Borneo and Sumatra; tin from Banka; spices from the Moluccas; fine cloths from Celebes and Bali; and pepper from Sumatra.
Goat skins, eggs and beeswax are the principal exports, cotton goods, tea, sugar and candles being the chief imports.
Mahogany cement, for filling up cracks in wood, consists of 4 parts of beeswax, i of Indian red and yellowochre to give colour.
To-day Labuan chiefly exists as a trading depot for the natives of the neighbouring coast of Borneo, who sell their produce - beeswax, edible birds-nests, camphor, gutta, trepang, &c., - to Chinese shopkeepers, who resell it in Singapore.
It is most conveniently obtained from olive oil, after removal of the oleic acid, or from Japanese beeswax, which is its glyceride.
They differ from liturgical lights in that, whereas these must be tapers of pure beeswax or lamps fed with pure olive oil (except by special dispensation under certain circumstances), those used merely to add splendour to the celebration may be of any material; the only exception being, that in the decoration of the altar gas-lights are forbidden.
The common material for re ceiving the impressions from the matrices was beeswax, generally strengthened and hardened by admixture with other substances, such as resin, pitch and even hemp and hair.