The conclusions arrived at by earlier writers are combated by Joseph Bedier in the first volume, "Le Cycle de Guillaume d'Orange" (1908), of his Legendes epiques, in which he constructs a theory that the cycle of Guillaume d'Orange grew up round the various shrines on the pilgrim route to Saint Gilles of Provence and Saint James of Compostella - that the chansons de geste were, in fact, the product of 11th and 12th century trouveres, exploiting local ecclesiastical traditions, and were not developed from earlier poems dating back perhaps to the lifetime of Guillaume of Toulouse, the saint of Gellone.
See "Hommage a Gaston Paris" (1903), the opening lecture of his successor, Joseph Bedier, in the chair of medieval literature at the College de France; A.
Bedier et M.
Bedier, is that there was one poem, and one only, at the root of the various versions preserved to us, and that that poem, composed in England, probably by an AngloNorman, was a work of such force and genius that it determined for all time the form of the Tristan story.
Bedier among the derivatives from Thomas.
Bedier (2 vols., Societe des anciens textes francais, 1902, 1905); Beroul, Roman de Tristan (ed.E.
Bedier (Romania, vol.
Le chevalier ci la corbeille, Le chevalier qui faisait parler les muets, Le chevalier, sa dame et un clerc, Les trois dames, La gageure, Le pretre d'Alison, La bourgeoise d'Orleans (Bedier, Les Fabliaux, 1895).