Even at this stage the vindictive or retributive character of punishment remains, but gradually, and specially after the humanist movement under thinkers like Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, new theories begin to emerge.
De Beccaria,Crimes and Punishments; also works quoted under Criminology; Capital Punishment; Prison; and articles on e.g.
The European ferment of ideas which preceded the French Revolution expressed itself in men like Alfieri, the fierce denouncer of tyrants, Beccaria, the philosopher of criminal jurisprudence, Volta, the physicist, and numerous political economists of Tuscany.
In a perfect legal system, says Beccaria, pardons should be excluded, for the clemency of the prince seems a tacit disapprobation of the laws (Dei Delitti e delle gene, ch.
In an age when Voltaire preached toleration and the great penologist Beccaria attacked the death-penalty and torture, in the States of the Church heretics were still liable to torture, the relapsed to capital punishment; and in a backward country like Spain the single reign of Philip V.
BECCARIA - BONESANA, CESARE, Marchese De (1735-1794), Italian publicist, was born at Milan on the 15th of March 173 5.
In 1771 Beccaria was made a member of th° supreme economic council; and in 1791 he was appointed one of the board for the reform of the judicial code.
In still more recent times Beccaria (1738-1794) as a jurist, Monti (1754-1828) as a poet and Manzoni (1785-1873) as a novelist, have won for the Milanese a high reputation.
GIOVANNI BATTISTA BECCARIA (1716-1781), Italian physicist, was born at Mondovi on the 3rd of October 1716, and entered the religious order of the Pious Schools in 1732.
Beccaria did much, in the way both of experiment and exposition, to spread a knowledge of the electrical researches of Franklin and others.
Cesare, marchese de Beccaria-Bonesana >>
Beccaria (1716-1781) deserves especial mention.