The interior arrangement of wall columns, horizontal beams and cornice bracketing corresponds with that on the outside.
Hence slabs or beams of long span should not be built of plain concrete, though when reinforced with steel it is admirably adapted for these purposes.
SPANDRIL, or Spandrel (formerly splaundrel, a word of unknown origin), in architecture, the space between any arch or curved brace and the level label, beams, &c., over the same.
But it is difficult and expensive to work up into various forms. Concrete has been avoided for making beams, slabs and thin walls, just because its deficiency in tensile strength doomed it to failure in such structures.
The structures in which steel concrete is used may be analysed as consisting essentially of (I) walls, (2) columns, (3) piles, (4) beams, (5) slabs, (6) arches.
Concrete by itself, though strong in compression, can offer but little resistance to tensile and shearing stresses, and as these stresses always occur in beams the problem arises how best to arrange the steel so as to assist the concrete in bearing them.
Floor slabs may be regarded as wide and shallow beams, and the remarks made about the stresses in the one apply to the other also; accordingly, the various devices which are used for strengthening beams recur in the slabs.
27) that the wind exerts a very marked influence in refracting sound-beams. From 1868 Henry continued to be annually chosen as president of the National Academy of Sciences; and he was also president of the Philosophical Society of Washington from the date of its organization in 1871.
The spear and arrows are identified with the beams of the sun and moon.
In such metal framework the beams and girders shall be riveted to each other at their respective junction points.
If pillars made of rolled iron or steel are used, their different parts shall be riveted to each other and the beams and girders resting upon them shall have riveted or bolted connexions to unite them with the pillar.
If cast-iron pillars are used, each successive pillar shall be bolted to the one below it by at least four bolts not less than three-fourths of an inch in diameter, and the beams and girders shall be bolted to the pillars.
At each line of flooror roofbeams, lateral connexion between the ends of the beams and girders shall be made by passing wrought-iron or steel straps across or through the cast-iron column, in such a manner as to rigidly connect the beams and girders with each other on the direction of their length.
These straps shall be made of wrought-iron or steel, and shall be riveted or bolted to the flanges or to the webs of the beams or girders.
" If buildings are made fire-proof entirely, and have skeleton construction so designed that their enclosing walls do not carry the weight of the floors or roof, then their walls shall be not less than twelve inches in thickness; and provided, also, that such walls shall be thoroughly anchored to the iron skeleton, and provided, also, that, whether the weight of such walls rests upon beams or pillars, such beams or pillars must be made strong enough in each storey to carry the weight of wall resting upon them without reliance upon the walls below them.
The massive halls were chilly, with ugly stone walls and wooden beams far above.
Bridges Adams, the intention being by " fishing " the joints to convert the rails into continuous beams. In the original design two chairs were placed, one under each rail, a few inches apart, as in fig.
Was carried on beams and could be raised in the middle, as we see it in Carpaccio's picture of "The Miracle of the Cross."
In this case the central court is roofed over, and has an octagon lantern in the centre; the recesses are covered with horizontal ceilings carried on great beams, the whole being elaborately carved, coloured and gilded; the tomb is covered with the later type of dome, built in stone, and elaborately carved outside with delicate conventional patterns in relief.
The ceilings have the representation of beams and rafters cut in the rock.
Trans., 1848, 227), limiting ourselves, however, to the case where the retarded and unretarded beams are contiguous and of equal width.
These architectural decorations are derived from a style of building found by the recent German expedition extant in an ancient church; courses of stone here alternate in the walls (both inside and out) with beams of wood held by circular clamps.
They were heaped up, before the beams supporting the central chamber had rotted, thieves made a practice of driving a mine into the mound straight to where the valuables were deposited, and it is only by the collapse of this mine and the crushing of the robber after he had thrown everything into confusion that the treasures of the Chertomlyk barrow, on the whole the most typical, were preserved to us.
Selling his Baltimore works, he built, in 1836, in partnership with his brother Thomas, a rolling mill in New York; in 1845 he removed it to Trenton, New Jersey, where iron structural beams were first made in 1854 and the Bessemer process first tried in America in 1856; and at Philippsburg, New Jersey, he built the largest blast furnace in the country at that time.
A man-engine consists of two heavy wooden rods (like the rods of a Cornish pumping plant), placed parallel and close to each other in a special shaft compartment, and suspended at the surface from a pair of massive walking beams (or " bobs ").
A third type is made on the "balance" principle, two plough beams with mould-boards being placed at right angles to one another, so that while the right-hand plough is at work the left-hand is elevated above the ground.
Into the ground and the whole frameworkconsisting of posts, beams, rafters, door-posts and window-frames was tied together with cords made by twisting the long fibrous stems of climbing plants.
Above these ties are the cornice brackets and beams, corresponding in general design to the cornice of the walls, and the intermediate space is filled with open carvings of dragons or other characteristic designs.
Some remains of the town walls still exist, and also two ancient bridges, both belonging to the Via Clodia, and many tombs hewn in the rock - small chambers imitating the architectural forms of houses, with beams and rafters represented in relief.
The guides or conductors in the pit may be constructed of wood, in which case rectangular fir beams, about 3 by 4 in., are used, attached at intervals of a few feet to buntons or cross-beams built into the lining of the pit.
A weight is moved along the arm of one of the beams until it just keeps the brake steady midway between the stops which must be provided to hold it when the weight fails to do so.
As the tank fills, the water enters the upper chamber and carries with it the flax and the beams, the latter being prevented from rising too high.
Chap. 21) of Leonard Digges 1 (originally published by his son Thomas in 1571, and again in 1591): - "Marvellous are the conclusions that may be performed by glasses concave and convex, of circular and parabolic forms, using for multiplication of beams sometime the aid of glasses transparent, which, by fraction, should unite or dissipate the images or figures presented by the reflection of other."
The double polar axis is composed of hollow metal beams of triangular section.
An oblong metallic box fitted with pivots, whose bearings are attached to the triangular beams, forms the tube for two parallel telescopes; these are separated throughout their length by a metallic diaphragm.
Among the other causes of the increase of the per capita consumption of iron are the displacement of wood by iron for ships and bridge-building; the great extension of the use of iron beams, columns and other pieces in constructing buildings of various kinds; the growth of steam and electric railways; and the introduction of iron fencing.
But it is in the design of steel concrete beams that the greatest ingenuity has been shown, and almost every patentee of a "system" has some new device for arranging the steel reinforcement to the best advantage.
A peculiarity of larch wood is the difficulty with which it is ignited, although so resinous; and, coated with a thin layer of plaster, beams and pillars of larch might probably be found to justify Caesar's epithet " igni impenetrabile lignum "; even the small branches are not easily kept alight, and a larch fire in the open needs considerable care.
Square, beams 12 in.
Again, we may split a narrow beam of light by partial reflexion from a transparent plate, and recombine the constituent beams after they have traversed different circuits of nearly equivalent lengths, so as to obtain interference fringes.
Moreover, this is precisely the condition for the absence of interference between the component of a split beam; because, the time of passage being to the first order fds/V f(udx+vdy+wdz)V2, the second term will then be independent of the path (43 being a single valued function) and therefore the same for the paths of both the interfering beams. If therefore the aether can be put into motion, we conclude (with Stokes) that such motion, in free space, must be of strictly irrotational type.
In the former the main supporting member or members may be an arch ring or arched ribs, suspension chains or ropes, or a pair of girders, beams or trusses.