The island is of volcanic origin; the only signs of upheaval are raised limestone beaches in the extreme N.
The Upper Devonian was a period of marine retreat; the crustal disturbances of the Lower Devonian were renewed and great quartz-pebble beaches were formed on the rising shore lines, producing the West Coast Range conglomerates of Tasmania, and the similar rocks to the south-east of Mansfield in Victoria.
There is evidence that Ungava, like the rest of Labrador, has risen several hundred feet since the Ice Age, marine beaches being found up to 700 ft.
As these lakes shrank after the return of an arid climate, they left elevated beaches and deposits of various minerals, which mark their former extent.
At the eastern extremity of the Coastal Plain Region an outer coast line is formed by a chain of long narrow barrier beaches from which project capes Hatteras, Lookout and Fear, whose outlying shoals are known for their dangers to navigation.
The beach reservations of the metropolitan park system at Revere and Nantasket, and several smaller city beaches are a special feature of this service.
Numerous raised beaches and terraces, containing shells of marine mollusca, &c., occur along the whole coast of Greenland, and indicate that the whole of this large island has been raised, or the sea has sunk, in post-glacial times, after the inland ice covered its now icebare outskirts.
A peculiar feature of the hydrography of Tamaulipas is the series of coastal lagoons formed by the building of new beaches across the indentations of the coast.
The sea-face is generally overhanging cliff, but in a few places are sandy beaches and low sandhills.
The coastal plain consists in great part of sandy beaches, detritus formations, and partially submerged areas caused by uplifted beaches and obstructed river channels.
In Rio Grande do Sul, where two large lakes have been created by uplifted sand beaches, the coastal plain widens greatly, and is merged in an extensive open, rolling grassy plain, traversed by ridges of low hills (cuchillas), similar to the neighbouring republic of Uruguay.
The remarkable " stone reefs " of the north-east coast are ancient beaches hardened by the infiltration of carbonate of lime.
From the South Head of Port Jackson to the North Head of Botany Bay; it consists of bold cliffs alternating with beautiful beaches, of which some are connected with the city by tramway, and form favourite places of resort.
The beaches which had been selected were, enumerating from right to left, " S " in Morto Bay, " V " and " W " on either side of Cape Helles at the south-western end, and " X " and " Y " on the outer shore; " V " and " W " were regarded as of primary importance, as those two beaches offered suitable landing places from the point of view of subsequent operations.
But the forces which had landed at " W " and " X " beaches had joined hands, the one battalion detailed for " S " beach had secured a good position, and during the night the troops still left aboard the " River Clyde " contrived to disembark.
Additional infantry was got ashore at " W " and " X " beaches, the first elements of the French division began disembarking at " V " beach in the afternoon, and before evening touch had been gained with the battalion that had made good at " S " beach.
Ottoman guns dominated the entire territory which the invaders had succeeded in the course of two months in conquering, as well as " V " and " W " beaches which were the landing-places chiefly used by them.
Birdwood decided, in consultation with Godley and Byng, that the front trenches should be held up to the very last moment on the night of final evacuation, the troops manning them then hastening to the beaches, everything removable, whether animate or inanimate, having already left.
Then the troops along the front were quietly withdrawn in successive groups, the fine weather continuing to the end and work at the beaches proceeding without a hitch.
Finally the parties still in the trenches slipped away, and when dawn broke the Turks, who had first ascertained that something unusual was afoot from the explosion of a vast mine in the Anzac area, and from conflagrations on the beaches where the few stores to be abandoned were being destroyed, discovered that the invaders were gone.
Two possible eventualities had especially to be feared - the sea might get up, or a heavy bombardment of the beaches might be instituted by the Turks while the final evacuation was in progress.
The enemy's guns gave a good deal of trouble at the beaches, and caused many casualties.
And S.W., and as the hours passed the situation at the beaches became disquieting.
The last detachments to quit the trenches moved off simultaneously all along the front at 1 r :45 P.M., without the enemy noticing their departure, and they were embarked successfully at " V " and " W " beaches according to schedule in spite of the heavy seas.
Although the evacuation of Helles without appreciable loss in personnel reflected great credit on the British staff and the troops concerned in it, as also on the Royal Navy, whose work at the beaches was carried out under great difficulties, the escape of the final remnants of the Dardanelles army from the Gallipoli Peninsula was facilitated by the negligence of the troops opposed to them.
Guns could have been turned on to the beaches, of which the range was exactly known, and embarkation, impeded as it was by the rough water, could hardly have been carried out without many casualties.
Within these bays are beaches of white sand, called praias, such as the Praia da Icarahy, Praia das Flechas and Praia Grande, upon which face low tile-covered residences surrounded with gardens.
Wallace found recent beaches 16 feet above the existing level.
The state controls and largely maintains two beaches magnificently equipped near the city.
It is supplied by the tidaland wind-formed currents, which are drifting sand from the Long Island and New Jersey coasts, extending the barrier beaches, such as Sandy Hook, out across the entrance to New York Bay.
A strange visitor, the frost-fish, never seen at sea, is picked up stranded on sandy beaches in cold weather, and is prized by epicures.
Its chief attractions as a watering-place are its picturesque appearance and surroundings, its extensive antiquarian remains, its mild climate and its two excellent beaches known as the North and South Sands.
The beaches and lower lands are covered with a dense growth of tussock grass (Spartina arundinacea), 8 to 10 ft.
In post-Glacial times, a subsidence admitted the sea into the Lagan valley and across the eastern shore in several places; but elevation, in the days of early human occupation, brought these last marine deposits to light, and raised the beaches and shore-terraces some 10 to 20 ft.
At Larne, Greenore and in the neck between Howth and Dublin, these raised beaches remain conspicuous.
Hence on beaches and in rivers, such as those of the southeast of England, flint pebbles exist in vast numbers.
There are found strikingly developed marine terraces of gravel, shore lines and surf beaches marked on the solid rock.
The largest class, perhaps, is that formed by the astonishing number of water-fowl which throng the shallow lagoons and river beaches at certain seasons of the year.
The western and northern coasts are regular in outline with long straight beaches; and shallows are common in the seas that wash them.
About one-eighth of the area consists of tidal marsh, lying chiefly between the long sandy ridges or barrier beaches of the Atlantic coast and the mainland.
The waters between these beaches and the mainland are gradually filling with sediment and changing into tidal marsh.
Still another class, and the most clearly marked of all, is the flora of the beaches, salt marshes and meadows.