Pygmaeus), two bats (the long-eared and the boreal), three species of Vespertilio (V.
The coloration is generally sombre, but to this there are exceptions; the fruit-bats are brownish yellow or russet on the under surface; two South American species are white; Blainville's chin-leafed bat is bright orange; and the Indian painted bat (Cerivoula pieta) with its deep orange dress, spotted with black on the wing-membranes, has reminded observers of a large butterfly.
Bats are social, nocturnal and they migrate to a warmer climate, or hibernate.
Both the insectivorous and frugivorous divisions of the bats are well represented.
But in 1681 Gerard Blasius had brought out at Amsterdam an Anatome Animalium, containing the results of all the dissections of animals that he could find; and the second part of this book, treating of Volatilia, makes a respectable show of more than one hundred and twenty closely-printed quarto pages, though nearly two-thirds is devoted to a treatise De Ovo et Pullo, containing among other things a reprint of Harvey's researches, and the scientific rank of the whole book may be inferred from bats being still classed with birds.
The statements here advanced are borne out by the fact that the wings of insects, bats and birds may be materially reduced without impairing their powers of flight.
There are four species of large fruit-eating bats, called flying foxes, twenty of insect-eating bats, above twenty of land-rats, and five of water-rats.
There is a small pig (Sus andamanensis), important to the food of the people, and a wild cat (Paradoxurus tytleri); but the bats(sixteen species) and rats(thirteen species) constitute nearly three-fourths of the known mammals.
Bats are insectivorous animals modified for flight, 1 M.
Oxen, sheep, dogs, monkeys, bats, and probably horses also suffer from similar parasitic diseases.
Insectivorous bats are numerous, but the frugivorous division of this order is only represented by a single species in Japan.
Endemic inferior animals and mammals are practically non-existent, except two bats and one scorpion, which are allied to Madagascar species or introduced.
Most bats are insect-eaters, but the tropical "flying foxes" or fox-bats of the Old World live on fruit; some are blood-suckers, and two feed on small fish.
Twelve species are British, among which are the pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pygmaeus, or P. Pipistrellus), the long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus), the noctule (Pipistrellus [Pterygistes] noctulus) the greater and lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum and R.
Fragilis is used for cricket-bats; there is a great difference in the value for this purpose of timber from different soils; and wood of the female tree is said to be preferable to that of the male.
The Cimicidae have the feet three-segmented and the forewings greatly reduced; most of the species are parasites on birds and bats, but one - Cimex lectularius (figs.
A pig (Sus papuensis), a dingo, several species of mice (of which Chiruromys is a peculiar genus), a few squirrels, and a considerable number of Chiroptera (bats) inhabit the country.
Persons who when young could hear the squeaks of bats may be quite deaf to them when older.
Wild pig, several species of rats, and many bats - one of the commonest being the'flying-fox, and many species of monkey - especially the gibbon - are also met with.
Bats are numerous, both in species and individuals.
In Yucatan the open plains, rich pasture, and comparative freedom from moist heat, insects and vampire bats, have been particularly favourable to cattle-raising, and the animals are generally rated among the best in Mexico.
Some of its characteristic mammals and birds are the long-eared desert fox, four-toed kangaroo rats, Sonoran pocket mice, big-eared and tiny white-haired bats, road runner, cactus wren, canyon wren, desert thrashers, hooded oriole, black-throated desert sparrow, Texas night-hawk and Gambels quail.
Troublesome insects, vampire bats, and the failure to introduce new blood into the degenerated herds, are responsible for its decline.
The fauna includes buffaloes, a marsupial cuscus, some bats, the beautiful scarlet lory, rare varieties of the ground-thrush, honey-eater and oriole.
Of the Cheiroptera (bats) only Vesperugo maurus is characteristically alpine.
Bats are very numerous.
A few rats and bats represent the indigenous mammals, but the sea is rich in fish and molluscs; and Dr Otto Finsch (Journ.
Bats, various species of rodents, and gazelles are very common, as is the ibex in the valleys of the Dead Sea.
The large fruit bats (Pteropus) occur in immense colonies, and are sometimes eaten by the natives.
Other discoveries include a few new squirrels and bats, and the occurrence of a lemur (Nycticebus tardigradus) in Tawi Tawi.
Squirrels, flying-squirrels, porcupines, civet-cats, rats, bats, flying-foxes and lizards are found in great variety; snakes of various kinds, from the boa-constrictor downward, are abundant, while the forests swarm with tree-leeches, and the marshes with horse-leeches and frogs.
Rats, frogs and bats form actually the only animal life in the caves, but a great number of antediluvian animal bones have been found here, as well as human bones and numerous remains of prehistoric human settlements.
Audubon's Avenue, the one nearest the entrance, is occupied in winter by myriads of bats, that hang from the walls in clusters like swarms of bees.
Bats are numerous, but the species are for the most part not peculiar to the area; several European forms are found at the higher elevations.
The bats and some of the best-flying birds have no air sacs.
Those apparent inconsistencies in the dimensions of the body and wings are readily explained by the greater muscular development of the heavy-bodied, small-winged insects, birds and bats, and the increased power and rapidity with which the wings in them are made to oscillate.
While, therefore, there is apparently no correspondence between the area of the wing and the animal to be raised, there is, except in the case of sailing insects, birds and bats, an unvarying relation as to the weight and number of oscillations; so that the problem of flight would seem to resolve itself into one of weight, power, velocity and small surfaces, versus buoyancy, debility, diminished speed and extensive surfaces - weight in either case being a sine qua non.
That no fixed relation exists between the area of the wings and the size and weight of the body to be elevated is evident on comparing the dimensions of the wings and bodies of the several orders of insects, bats and birds.
While as explained, no definite relation exists between the weight of a flying animal and the size of its flying surfaces, there being, as stated, heavy-bodied and small-winged insects, birds and bats, and the converse, and while, as has been shown, flight is possible within a wide range, the wings being, as a rule, in excess of what are required for the purposes of flight, - still it appears from the researches of L.
In natural flight the body of the flying creature falls slightly forward in a curve when the 1 On the Flight of Birds, of Bats and of Insects, in reference to the subject of Aerial Locomotion, by L.
There is one unanswerable objection to this theory: the birds and bats, and some if not all the insects, have distinct elevator muscles, and can elevate their wings at pleasure when not flying and when, consequently, the reaction of the air is not elicited.
Formerly bears, wolves and other wild animals took refuge in its fastnesses; and bats, rats, mice and salamanders are frequent visitors.
Bats and wasps and lizards, forgetful of rest and food, and insensible to the noisomeness of their corruption.
In the southern and western islands the fauna is restricted mainly to foxes, bats, rats, mice, the sea otter, the penguin and other aquatic birds, and various cetaceans in the surrounding waters.
His main discoveries, however, were in the field of physiology: he wrote valuable and suggestive papers on respiration, on the senses of bats, &c., while he made experiments (1768) to disprove the occurrence of spontaneous generation, showing in opposition to J.
With one or two possible exceptions, like Argas vespertilonis, which has only been obtained from European bats, no species of tick is known to be confined to a particular host.
The fore-limbs may, however, be modified, as in moles, for burrowing, or, as in bats, for flight, or finally, as in whales and dolphins, for swimming, with the assumption in this latter instance of a flipper-like form and the complete disappearance of the hind-limbs.
Though generally nearly smooth, or but slightly scaly, the surface of some hairs is imbricated; that is to say, shows projecting scale-like processes, as in some bats, while in the twotoed sloth (Choloepus) they are longitudinally grooved or fluted.
From the Insectivora the bats, or Chiroptera, are evidently a specialized lateral offshoot; while the Dermoptera ma y be another branch from the same stock.
It may be added that even bats are unable to cross large tracts of sea; and the fact that fruitbats of the genus Pteropus are found in Madagascar and the Seychelles, as well as in India, while they are absent from Africa, is held to be an important link in the chain of evidence demonstrating a former land-connexion between Madagascar and India.
Bats in prodigious numbers, and some of them of extraordinary size, inhabit the many caves of the island; more than twenty species are known.
Huge caves, of which the most noted are the Farm Caves, occur in the hills near Moulmein, and they too are full of relics of their ancient use as temples, though now they are chiefly visited in connexion with the bats, whose flight viewed from a distance, as they issue from the caves, resembles a cloud of smoke.
There are several varieties of grasshopper mice (Orychomys), white-footed mice (Peromyscus), harvest mice (Reithrodontomys), rice-rats (Oryzomys), wood-rats (Neotoma), voles (Microtus), &c. Bats inhabit caves in Burnet, Williamson, Lampasas, Gillespie and other counties.
- A Freycinetia, native of Java, and a species of Bauhinia in Trinidad are visited by bats which transfer the pollen.
Bats of some twenty-five species have been registered; in central Sumatra they dwell in thousands in the limestone caves.
Bats also are very numerous, especially in the eastern forest region, where the vampire bat is a serious obstacle to permanent settlement.
Bats are very numerous, and a number of the species are peculiar to the Philippines.
The waters of this cavern appear to be entirely destitute of life; and the existing fauna comprises only a few bats, rats, mice, spiders, flies and small centipedes.
Insects and bats have no feathers, and yet fly well.
" larmier," or " crumen," of antelopes and deer, the frontal gland of the muntjak and of bats of the genus Phyllorhina, the chingland of the chevrotains and of Taphozous and certain other bats, the glandular patch behind the ear of the chamois and the reedbuck, the glands on the lower parts of the legs of most deer and a few antelopes (the position of which is indicated by tufts of long and often specially coloured hair), the interdigital foot-glands of goats, sheep, and many other ruminants, the temporal gland of elephants, the lateral glands of the musk-shrew, the gland on the back of the hyrax and the peccary (from the presence of which the latter animal takes the name Dicotyles), the gland on the tails of the members of the dog-tribe, the preputial glands of the muskdeer and beaver (both well known for the use made of their powerfully odorous secretion in perfumery), and also of the swine and hare, the anal glands of Carnivora, the perineal gland of the civet (also of commercial value), the caudal glands of the fox and goat, the gland on the wing-membrane of bats of the genus Saccopteryx, the post-digital gland of the rhinoceros, &c. Very generally these glands are common to both sexes, and it is in such cases that their function as a means of mutual recognition is most evident.
Bats believed to be Phyllorhinus cineraceus (Punjab species), Scotophilus Bellii (W.