TADPOLE, a term often, but wrongly, applied indiscriminately to all Batrachian larvae.
A tadpole is the larva of a tailless Batrachian after the loss of the external gills and before the egress of the fore limbs (except in the aberrant Xenopus) and the resorption of the tail.
The ciliated larva escapes from the egg into the water and enters an intermediate host (leech, mollusc, arthropod, batrachian or fish) where it undergoes a metamorphosis into a second stage in which most of the adult organs are present.
Ziemanni and Trypanomorpha noctuae, among avian parasites, described by Schaudinn (50); Trypanosoma inopinatum, among batrachian forms, described by A.
Alytes obstetricans is a small toad-like Batrachian, two inches in length, of dull greyish coloration, plump form with warty skin and large eyes with vertical pupils.
A comparison, formerly suggested, with the two forms of leaf in Batrachian Ranunculi has not proved to hold good; the idea of an aquatic habit is contradicted by the anatomical structure, and the hypothesis that the plants were of scandent growth is more probable.
The last is remarkable for an extraordinary endoand exo-skeletal carapace, Dissorhophus being described by Cope (13) as a "batrachian armadillo."
An unmistakable batrachian of this order, referred by its describer to Palaeobatrachus, a determination which is only provisional, has been discovered in the Kimmeridgian of the Sierra del Montsech, Catalonia (25), in a therefore somewhat older formation than the Wealden Caudata Hylaeobatrachus.
No batrachian is known to possess an ossified azygous supraoccipital.
Sometimes these scales assumed the importance of scutes and formed a carapace, as in the "batrachian armadillo" discovered by E.
Many cases are known in which the young batrachian enters the world in the perfect condition, as in the black salamander of the Alps (Salamandra atra), the cave salamander (Spelerpes fuscus), the caecilian Typhlonectes, and a number of frogs, such as Pipa, Rhinoderma, Hylodes, some Nototrema, Rana opisthodon, &c. A fairly complete bibliographical index to these cases and the most remarkable instances of parental care in tailless batrachians will be found in the interesting articles by Lilian V.
It will suffice to indicate here in a synoptic form, as was done by the present writer many years ago, when our knowledge of these wonders of batrachian life was far less advanced than it is now, the principal modes of protection which are resorted to: I.
Geographical Distribution.-If a division of the world according to its batrachian faunae were to be attempted, it would differ very considerably from that which would answer for the principal groups of reptiles, the lizards especially.
(13) "A Batrachian Armadillo," Amer.
Smith, "On Oviposition and Nursing in the Batrachian genus Dendrobates," Amer.
Boulenger, "On the Presence of Pterygoid Teeth in a Tailless Batrachian, with remarks on the Localization of Teeth on the Palate," P.Z.S., 1890, p. 664.