Of the flora of Tibet Rockhill writes: " In the ` hot lands ' (Tsa-rong) in southern and south-eastern Tibet, extending even to Batang, peaches, apricots, apples, plums, grapes, water-melons, &c., and even pomegranates, are raised; most of Tibet only produces a few varieties of vegetables, such as potatoes, turnips, beans, cabbages, onions, &c. The principal cereals raised are barley and buckwheat, wheat in small quantities, and a little oats.
This province is divided into the five Horba tribes, the eighteen Nyarong states in the valley of the upper Yalung, and the districts of Litang, Batang, Derge, Gartok Chiamdo and Draya.
The great trade routes are, first, that which, starting from Cheng-tu, the capital of the Chinese province of Szechuen, passes by way of Tachienlu or Dartsedo, Litang, Batang, Chiamdo, Larego, Lhasa, Gyantse, Shigatse, reaches the Nepalese Routes, &C. frontier at Nielam and goes thence to Katmandu.
Here the party was stopped by Tibetan authorities and forced to take the tea route through Chinese Tibet (Gyade) by way of Batasumdo, Chebotenchin, Riwoche, Chiamdo to Chiangka, near the upper Yangtse-kiang, whence they proceeded to Tachienlu by Batang and Litang.
(3) The valley of the Batang Toru, with the plateau of Sipirok in the east and the mountain chain of Tapanuli in the west.
On the south and south-east the valley is bounded by two volcanoes, Lubuk Raja and Si Buwal Buwali, whence were derived the volcanic tuffs of the valley and of the plateau of Sipirok, with their lakes, which are drained by the Batang Toru and its affluents.
(4) The longitudinal valley of the Batang Gadis,with its affluent the Angkola, and in the south the valley of the Sumpur, the upper course of the Rokan, between Lubuk Raja in the north and Mt Merapi in the south.
This section is divided by the Middengebergte or middle chain into a northern half watered by the Ombilin or upper Indragiri with its affluents, and a southern half traversed by the Batang Hari or upper Jambi.
South of the Middengebergte, however, the northern affluents of the Batang Hari, the Seliti, Gumanti, Si Potar, Mamun and Pangean, at least those in the west, again run in longitudinal valleys.
These affluents and the Batang Hari itself (except the part at the mouth, Mamun-Simalidu) are navigable only by praus drawing not more than in.
(6) South Sumatra, so far as known, presents everywhere in its valleys the same character as that of the Batang Toru, Batang Gadis, Sumpur, &c. They also are closed in on the north and south by volcanoes "which have here produced similar masses of tuff, with lakes and rivers of the same formation as in the north.
By military expeditions (1890-95) the Dutch influence on the Batang Hari, or Upper Jambi, was increased; as also in 1899 in the Lima Kotas 1 in central Sumatra, included within the territory of Siak.
The most important of its rivers are the Sarawak, the Batang-Lupar, the Sarebas, the Rejang (navigable for more than loo m.), the Baram, the Limbang or Brunei river, and the Padas.