From Mont aux Sources, table-shaped, and called by the Basutos Potong (Antelope), a second range of mountains, the Maluti, runs S.W.
- The Basutos (2 vols., London, 1909), a standard history, and" Basutoland and the Basutos "in Jul.
Barkly, Among Boers and Basutos (new ed., London, 1897), a record, chiefly, of the Gun War of 1880-1882; C. W.
The vast majority of the natives are Zulu (see Kaffirs), but there is a settlement of some 2000 Basutos in the Nqutu district.
In the eastern districts of Harrismith, Bethlehem, Ficksburg and Ladybrand the Basutos are largely concentrated.
He recognized the failure of the attempt to govern on the lines of the treaties with the Griquas and Basutos, and on the 3rd of February 1848 he issued a proclamation declaring British sovereignty over the country between the Orange and the Vaal eastward to the Drakensberg.
In the same year the disputes between the Basutos and the Boers culminated in open war.
Both parties laid claims to land beyond the Warden line, and each party had taken possession of what it could, the Basutos being also expert cattle-lifters.
In the war the advantage rested with the Basutos; thereupon the Free State appealed to Sir George Grey, who induced Moshesh to come to terms. On the 15th of October 1858 a treaty was signed defining anew the boundary.
Though unable to effect a durable peace with the Basutos, or to realize his ambition for the creation of one powerful Boer republic, Pretorius saw the Free State begin to grow in strength.
Thus the thirty years' strife between the Basutos and the Boers came to an end.
At this time, largely owing to the exhausting struggle with the Basutos, the Free State Boers, like their Transvaal neighbours, had drifted into financial straits.
Readers of Dante know the idea that the dead have no shadows; this was no invention of the poet's but a piece of traditionary lore; at the present day among the Basutos it is held that a man walking by the brink of a river may lose his life if his shadow falls on the water, for a crocodile may seize it and draw him in; in Tasmania, North and South America and classical Europe is found the conception that the soul - o-tab., umbra - is somehow identical with the shadow of a man.
The Basutos think that crocodiles can devour the shadow of a man cast on the surface of water.
All the other natives, popularly called Kaffirs, are members of the Bantu-negroid family, of whom they here form three distinct branches: (I) the Zulu-Xosas, originally confined to the south-east seaboard between Delagoa Bay and the Great Fish River, but later (19th century) spread by conquest over Gazaland, parts of the Transvaal, and Rhodesia (Matabeleland), (2) the Bechuanas, with the kindred Basutos, on the continental plateau from the Orange to the Zambezi, and ranging westwards over the Kalahari desert and the Lake.
Cassalis among the Basutos, Francois Coillard among the Barotse, James Stewart in Cape Colony, to name but a few of the great missionaries, have all had an excellent influence upon the natives.
With one exception, that of Moshesh, the chief of the Basutos, none of the chiefs with whom treaties were made were men powerful enough to found kingdoms, nor had they, in most cases, any better right than their neighbours to the territory recognized as theirs by the British government.
And east of this country, again, was a tract of territory occupied by Basutos under Moshesh.
In the Sovereignty difficulties arose in defining the reserves of the native chiefs, and with the Basutos there were armed conflicts.
In the conflicts between the Free Staters and the Basutos Grey's intervention was sought.
Its difficulties with the Basutos were at last composed, and Moshesh and his people were in 1868 definitely taken under British protection.
At that time Paul Kruger and Piet Joubert, delegates from the Transvaal Boers, were in Cape Town, and they used their influence to prevent the acceptance of the proposals, which were shelved by the ministry accepting " the 3 Serious troubles with the Basutos which began in 1879 reacted on the situation in the Transvaal and Natal.
1904-1905); Sir Godfrey Lagden, The Basutos (1909); " The Times " History of the War [of 1899-1902] in South Africa (7 vols., 1900-1909); British Official History of the War in South Africa (4 vols., 1906-1910).