Part of the Cape and the neighbouring regions of Basutoland and Orange Free State, presents a pleasing appearance.
'BASUTOLAND (officially "The Territory of Basutoland"), an inland state and British crown colony of S.E.
Basutoland, or Lesuto (Lesotho) as the natives call it, forms the south-eastern edge of the interior tableland of South Africa, and has a rugged and broken surface with a mean elevation of 6000 ft.
Basutoland is entirely occupied by the upper division (Stormberg series) of the Karroo formation.
There are numerous mission stations throughout Basutoland, to several of which Biblical names have been given, such as Shiloh, Hermon, Cana, Bethesda, Berea.
- Basutoland is one of the greatest grain-growing countries of South Africa.
- Basutoland is a crown colony, of which the high commissioner for South Africa is governor.
Basutoland has no public debt.
Until the beginning of the 19th century Basutoland appears to have been uninhabited save by wandering Bushmen, whose rude rock pictures are to be found in several parts of the Drakensberg.
In response to this request, the British authorities decided to take over Basutoland, and a proclamation of annexation was issued on the 12th of March 1868.
The Free State strongly resented the British annexation of Basutoland, but after much negotiation the treaty of Aliwal North was concluded (1869) between the Free State and the high commissioner.
This treaty defined the boundary between the Free State and Basutoland, whereby the fertile strip of country west of the Caledon river, known as the Conquered Territory, was finally transferred to the Free State, and the remainder of Basutoland was recognized as a portion of the British dominions.
The turbulent Basuto warriors did not remain quiet for any length of time, and in 1879 Moirosi, a chief residing in the southern portion of Basutoland, openly repudiated colonial rule.
In 1880 the Cape government felt sufficiently strong to extend to Basutoland the Cape Peace Preservation Act of 1878.
Its "'ar' execution in Basutoland, however, proved an extremely difficult task, and was never entirely accomplished.
Peace in Basutoland was not announced until the end of 1882.
The subjection of Basutoland to the control of the Cape government had by this time proved unsatisfactory, both to the Basuto and to Cape Colony.
Consequently, in 1884, Basutoland ceased to be a portion of the Cape Colony and became a British crown colony.
Trade increased, and in 1891 Basutoland was admitted to the customs union, which already existed between Orange Free State, Cape Colony and British Bechuanaland.
When Lord (then Sir Alfred) Milner visited Basutoland in 1898, on his way to Bloemfontein, he was received by 15,000 mounted Basuto.
- The Basutos (2 vols., London, 1909), a standard history, and" Basutoland and the Basutos "in Jul.
Theal, Basutoland Records (Cape Town, 1883); E.
Casalis, Les Bassutos (Paris, 1859), a description of exploration, manners and customs, the result of twenty-three years' residence in the country; Minnie Martin, Basutoland: its Legends and Customs (London, 1903); Mrs F.
For current information see the annual report on Basutoland (Colonial Office, London).
Many books dealing with South Africa generally have chapters relating to Basutoland, e.g.
It is the centre of a thriving agricultural district and has a considerahle trade in wool, grain, cattle and horses with Basutoland, Pondoland and the neighbouring regions of Natal.
It rises in Basutoland, less than 200 m.
By the Cape province and Basutoland, N.W.
This is the case in the Mont-aux-Sources (11,170 ft.) and Cathkin Peak or Champagne Castle (10,357 ft.); the top of the third great height, Giant's Castle (9657 ft.), is in Basutoland, but its seaward slopes are in Natal.
The heaths and proteads common at the Cape peninsula, in Basutoland and other parts of South Africa, are rare in Natal, but almost any species of the flora of semi-tropical and temperate countries introduced attains perfection.
Prompt action by Sir Benjamin Pine, then lieutenant-governor of the colony, together with help from the Cape and Basutoland, prevented the success of Langalibalele's plan, and his own tribe, numbering some io,000 persons, was the only one which rebelled.
Merriman, a member of the ministry, who, for political reasons, asked him not to go to Basutoland, but to take the appointment of commandant of the colonial forces at King William's Town.
A wave of feeling spread amongst the different Kaffir tribes on the colonial frontier, and after the Gaika-Galeka War there followed in 1879 a rising in Basutoland under Moirosi, whose cattle-raiding had for some time!past caused considerable trouble.
In 1880 the colonial authorities endeavoured to extend to Basutoland the Peace Preservation Act of 1878, under which a general disarmament of the Basutos was attempted.
The imperial government then took over Basutoland as a crown colony, on the understanding that Cape Colony should contribute for administrative purposes £18,000 annually.
In 1883, during a debate on the Basutoland Dis-annexation Bill, Rhodes openly charged Mr Hofmeyr in the House with a desire to see a " United States of South Africa under its own flag."
The colonies of British Bechuanaland and Basutoland were now taken into the customs union existing between the Orange Free State and Cape Colony.
By Natal, Basutoland, Orange Free State and the Transvaal; N.
- being in Basutoland and Natal.
In 1875 Basutoland formed part of the colony; in 1891 Transkei, Tembuland, Griqualand East, Griqualand West and Walfish Bay had been incorporated, and Basutoland had been disannexed; and in 1904 Pondoland and British Bechuanaland had been added.
The 1875 census gave the population of the colony proper at 720,984, and that of Basutoland at 128,176.
The policy of non-interference proclaimed in 1854 had proved impracticable, and the annexation of Basutoland was an open confession of the fact.