BASTIDE (Provençal bastida, building), a word applied to the fortified towns founded in south-western France in the middle ages, and corresponding to the villes neuves of northern France.
They were built on a rectangular plan, with a large central square and straight thoroughfares running at right angles or parallel to one another, this uniformity of construction being well exemplified in the existing bastide of Monpazier (Dordogne) founded by the English in 1284.
The following are also of interest: - Sauveterre, founded in 1281, a striking example of the bastide of that period; Conques, which has a remarkable abbey-church of the II th century like St Sernin of Toulouse in plan and possessing a rich treasury of reliquaries, &c.; Espalion, where amongst other old buildings there are the remains of a feudal stronghold and a church of the Romanesque period; Najac, which has the ruins of a magnificent château of the 13th century; and Sylvanes, with a church of the 12th century, once attached to a Cistercian abbey.
NICOLAS JEAN DE DIEU SOULT, Duke of Dalmatia (1769-1851), marshal of France, was born at Saint-Amans-la-Bastide (now in department of the Tarn) on the 29th of March 1769, and was the son of a country notary at that place.
See also C. Bastide, John Locke; ses theories politiques et leur influence en Angleterre (Paris, 1907); H.