Two lines of steamers, an English and a Turkish, furnish an inadequate service between Basra and Bagdad, but there is no steam navigation on the river above the latter city.
The first of these canals, taken off on the right bank of the river a little below Hit, followed the extreme skirt of the alluvium the whole way to the Persian Gulf near Basra, and thus formed an outer barrier, strengthened at intervals with watch-towers and fortified posts, to protect the cultivated land of the Sawad against the incursions of the desert Arabs.
Dholahtaf, but is now known as the Cherra-Saadeh, and is in the popular tradition said to have been excavated by a man from Basra at the behest of a woman of Hit whom he desired to make his wife.
From Garmat Ali, where the Tigris and Euphrates at present unite,' under the title of Shattel-Arab, the river sweeps on to Basra, Ex p o yds.
From Korna to Basra the banks of the river are well cultivated and the date groves almost continuous; indeed this is the greatest date-producing region of the world.
Twenty-five miles below Basra the river Karun from Shushter and Dizful throws off an arm, which seems to be artificial, into the Euphrates.
The Mandaeans are found in the marshy lands of South Babylonia (al-bataih), particularly in the neighbourhood of Basra (or Bussorah), and in Khuzistan (Disful, Shuster).
2 The existence of the Mandaeans has been known since the middle 'of the 17th century, when the first Christian missionaries, Ignatius a Jesu and Angelus a Sancto, began to labour among them at Basra; further information was gathered at a somewhat later date by Pietro della Valle' and Jean de Thevenot 5 (1633-1667), and in the following century by Engelbrecht Kaempfer (1651-1716), Jean Chardin (1643-1713) and Carsten Niebuhr.
When one remembers that missionaries like Piano Carpini, and traders like the Venetian Polos, either penetrated by land from Acre to Peking, or circumnavigated southern Asia from Basra to Canton, one realizes that there was, about 1300, a discovery of Asia as new and tremendous as the discovery of America by Columbus two centuries later.
From then, these towns decayed before the increasing prosperity of the new Arab capitals Basra and Bagdad.
In Palestine and elsewhere there is a large orange trade, and Basra, in Turkish Arabia, has the largest export of dates in the world.
In January 1902 the German group holding the Anatolian railway concession was granted a further concession for extending that railway from Konia, then its terminus, through the Taurus range and by way of the Euphrates, Nisibin, Mosul, the Tigris, Bagdad, Kerbela and Nejef to Basra, thus establishing railway communication between the Bosporus and the Persian Gulf.
The Indian rupee and the Persian kran are widely circulated through Mesopotamia; in Basra transactions are counted in krans, taking as a fixed exchange £T1 = 34.15 krans.
Army Corps, which garrisons also the Basra and Mosul vilayets.
It maintains steam communication with Basra, its port, which is situated on the Shatt el-Arab, somewhat more than 50 m.
Only two of these, however, maintain a weekly connexion with Basra, and they are quite inadequate to the freight traffic between the two cities.
He spent his life and devoted himself in Basra chiefly to the study of polite literature.
A more important work is The Book of Chastity, by Isho`denah, who according to `Abadisho` was bishop of Kasrabut read Basra - about the end of the 8th century.
The former is divided into two sections: the first, of a metaphysical character, contains a sort of practical cosmography, chiefly based on Avicenna's theories, but frequently intermixed both with the freer speculations of the well-known philosophical brotherhood of Basra, the Ikhwan-es-safa'i, and purely Shiite or Isma`ilite ideas; the second, or ethical section of the poem, abounds in moral maxims and ingenious thoughts on man's good and bad qualities, on the necessity of shunning the company of fools and double-faced friends, on the deceptive allurements of the world and the secret snares of ambitious craving for rank and wealth.
Returning to Arabia a year later, he visited Oman and the shores of the Persian Gulf, and travelling from Basra through Syria and Palestine he reached Denmark in 1764 after four years' absence.
Sadlier hesitated about going farther, but he was unable to obtain a safe conduct to Basra, or to return by the way he had come, and was compelled reluctantly to accompany the army to Medina.
Under the second caliph Omar (634-644) the Persians were defeated at Kadesiya (Kadessia), and Irak was completely subdued and the new cities of Kuf a and Basra were ',For the general history of the succeeding period see Caliphate; Egypt: History, §" Mahommedan."
Kufa attracted chiefly men of south Arabia, Basra those of the north.
But the quarrels which led to the murder of Othman were fomented not so much in Arabia as in Kufa and Basra and Fostat.
When 'Ali left Medina to secure Basra, he abandoned it as the capital of the Arabian empire.
Its originator, Mahommed Ibn Abdul Wahhab, was born (1691) at Ayana in Nejd, and after studying in Basra and Damascus, and making the pilgrimage to Mecca returned to his native country and settled down at Huremala near Deraiya.
A force was equipped at Basra under Ahmad Feizi Pasha with the intention of occupying Kuwet; Mubarak thereupon appealed to Great Britain and action was taken which prevented the Turkish designs from being carried out.
The Porte now made another effort to assist its protégé two columns were despatched from Medina and Basra respectively, to relieve Hail, and drive out the Wahhabis.
Ahmad Feizi Pasha, in command of the Basra column, 4200 strong, crossed the desert and reached the wells of aina, 200 m.
For example, Masan of Basra (d.
728 A.D.) had a great mass of such notes, and he was accused of sometimes passing off as oral tradition things he had really drawn from books; for oral tradition was still the one recognized authority, and it is related of more than one old scholar, and even of Hasan of Basra himself, that he directed his books to be burned at his death.
The kingdoms of Ghassan and Hira, advanced posts hitherto, now became the headquarters of the Arabs; the new empire had its centres on the one hand at Damascus, on the other hand at Kufa and Basra, the two newly-founded cities in the region of old Babylonia.
But soon these two, along with Ayesha, the mother of the faithful, who had an old grudge against Ali, succeeded in making their escape to Irak, where at Basra they raised the standard of rebellion.
The new caliph, however, found means of disposing of their opposition, and at the battle of the Camel, fought at Basra in November 656, Talha and Zobair were slain, and Ayesha was taken prisoner.
Islam had its headquarters here; Kufa and Basra were the home of the pious and of the adventurer, the centres of religious and political movement.
Lastly, there were in Kufa, and still more in Basra, many Othmaniya or legitimists, on whose co-operation he could not rely.
Abbas, the vicegerent of Ali at Basra and ancestor of the future Abbasid dynasty, was in command.
In 1917 she went with the military authorities to Basra and followed the army up to Bagdad, where she subsequently acted as assistant political officer, the first woman to occupy so important an administrative post.
In 1865 an earthquake levelled the villages of Darveh Asul near Muga'rn; in 1880 an earthquake caused 120 deaths in Basra; in 1883 severe shocks were felt from Bushire to Tahiri; in 1884 an earthquake caused 132 deaths on Qishm I., which was in consequence deserted; in 1897 an earthquake destroyed Qishm town and caused over I,000 deaths; further shocks were experienced at Qishm and Bandar `Abbas in 1902 and 1905.
The Muscat date reaches maturity sooner than the Basra crop, and is commercially valuable.
Commerce.-A summary of import and export values of trade in the Persian Gulf, excluding Mohammerah and Basra, is appended.
Mail Communications.-The Persian Gulf was at the end of the 18th century the most rapid route between Europe and India, and it was not until 1833 that the Red Sea route was adopted by the East India Co.; from this date until 1862 the Gulf fell into an extraordinary state of inaccessibility-letters for India being sent from Bagdad and Basra via Damascus, and correspondence from Bushire for Bagdad via Teheran.