The derivation of the word labarum is disputed; it appears to be connected with the Basque labarva, signifying standard.
Among these was Pedro de Mendoza, a Basque nobleman.
He and the Savoyard Pierre Lefevre, who shared his lodging, had already, in 1529, made the acquaintance of Ignatius of Loyola - like Xavier a native of the Spanish Basque country.
BARACALDO, a river-port of north-eastern Spain, in the province of Biscay; on the left bank of the river Nervion or Ansa (in Basque, Ibaizabal), 5 m.
He gradually obtained full possession of Navarre and the Basque provinces, outside of the fortresses, which he had not the means to besiege.
An engaging account of Zumalacarregui will be found in The Most Striking Events of a Twelvemonth Campaign with Zumalacarregui in Navarre and the Basque Provinces, by C. F.
It is possible (Boudard, Etudes sur l'alphabet iberien (Paris, 1852) that the river-name itself represents the Basque phrase ibay-erri " the country of the river."
In reply, Graslin (De l'Iberie, Paris, 1839), maintained that the name Iberia was nothing but a Greek misnomer of Spain, and that there was no proof that the Basque people had ever occupied a wider area than at present; and Blade (Origine des Basques, Paris, 1869) took the same line of argument, holding that Iberia is a purely geographical term, that there was no.
Proper Iberian race, that the Basques were always shut in by alien races, that their affinity is still to seek, and that the whole Basque-Iberian theory is a figment.
Van Eys, for example, " La Langue iberienne et la langue basque," in Revue de linguistique, goes against Humboldt; but Prince Napoleon and to a considerable extent A.
Van Eys, " La Langue iberienne et la langue basque," in Revue de linguistique, pp. 31 5 (1874); W.
Collignon, "La Race basque," L'Anthropologie, v.
De Aranzadi, " Le Peuple basque, résumé " Bull.
Geze, " De quelques rapports entre les langues berbere et basque," Mem.
Born at Lima in 1806, of pure Basque descent, he joined the patriot army before he was fifteen and displayed his audacious valour in many a hard-fought battle.
CAGOTS, a people found in the Basque provinces, Beam, Gascony and Brittany.
Biscay is one of the Basque Provinces, and its name is occasionally employed as geographically equivalent to Basque, in that case including the three provinces of Biscay proper, Guipuzcoa and Alava.
The mountainous slopes of Biscay arestudded with the traditional Basque caserio, or farmhouse, in which the peasantry live on the metayer system, dividing theprofits of the soil with absentee landlords.
One of the oldest churches in the Basque Provinces, San Pedro de Tavira; Guernica (3250), a picturesque village on the river Mondaca, was until 1876 the meeting-place of the provincial parliament.
The deputies assembled under an old oak-tree, celebrated by the Basque poet, Jose Maria Iparraguirre, in a song which is regarded by the Spanish Basques almost as a national anthem.
Twice he obliged the Carlists to raise the siege of Bilbao before he was appointed commander-in-chief of the northern army on the r7th of September 1836, when the tide of war seemed to be setting in favour of the pretender in the Basque provinces and Navarre, though Don Carlos had lost his ablest lieutenant, the Basque Zumalacarregui.
In 1838 Espartero carefully opened up negotiations with Maroto and the principal Carlist chiefs of the Basque provinces.
ALAVA, one of the Basque Provinces of northern Spain; bounded on the N.
The public roads and other works of the province are excellent, and, like those of the rest of the Basque provinces, entirely kept up by local initiative and taxes.
For a fuller account of the history, people and customs of Alava, see Basques and Basque Provinces, with the works there cited.
There he busied himself with philology, and published notably some works on the Basque language: Grammaire basque, Remarques sur plusieurs assertions concernant la langue basque (1876), Observations sur le basque Fontarabie (1878).
In April 1809 he was engaged in the attack on the French squadron in the Basque Roads, which was very ill conducted by Lord Gambier.
BASQUE PROVINCES (Provincias Vascongadas), a division of north-eastern Spain, comprising the three provinces of Alava, Biscay or Vizcaya and Guipuzcoa.
The territory occupied by the Basque Provinces forms a triangle bounded on the west and south by the provinces of Santander, Burgos and Logrono, on the east by Navarre, on the north by France and the Bay of Biscay.
The French Pays Basque forms part of the arrondissements of Bayonne and Mauleon.
Of the Provinces, Guipuzcoa is the only one which is wholly Basque, Alava is the least so.
Though the three Basque Provinces were thus united to the crown of Spain, they still remained a land apart (tierra apartada).
In 1833, when, in default of male heirs, his brother Don Carlos claimed the throne, confirmed the Basque fueros, and raised the standard of revolt against his niece, Isabel II.
But their representatives, assisted by the senators and deputies of the Basque Provinces in the Cortes, negotiated successive pacts, each lasting several years, securing for the three Provinces their municipal and provincial self-government, and the assessment, distribution and collection of their principal taxes and octroi duties, on the understanding that an agreed sum should be paid annually to the state, subject to an increase whenever the national taxation of other provinces was augmented.
In December 1906, after long discussion, the contribution of the Basque Provinces to the state, according to the law of the 21st of July 1876, was fixed for the next twenty years; for the first ten years at 8,500,000 pesetas, for the next ten an additional 500,000 pesetas, from 31st December 1916 to 31st December 1926, the province of Guipuzcoa paying in addition 700,000 pesetas to the treasury.
In agriculture the Basque Provinces and the Pays Basque were great cider countries, but during the 19th century this was gradually replaced by wine-growing.
The chief industries of the Basque Provinces are the sea fisheries and iron mining.
In'1905 the Basque Provinces produced 5,302,344 tons of iron, over five millions of which came from Biscay, out of a total of 9,395,314 tons for the whole of Spain.
There are excellent chapters on the Basque Provinces in the Introduction a la Historia Natural, y a la Geografia Fisica de Espana, by D.
El Guipuzcoano instruido (San Sebastian, 1780), in the form of a dictionary, gives full details of the life, the rights, duties and obligations of a Basque citizen of that date.
The development of the Basque mining industry is fully described in Las Minas de hierro de la provincia de Vizcaya, progressos realizados en esta region derde 1870 hast y 1899 (Bilbao, 1900).
On his return to Spain in 1892 he was appointed to the command first of the 6th Army Corps in the Basque Provinces and Navarre, where he soon quelled agitations, and then as captain-general at Barcelona, where he remained until January 1896.
By the Basque Provinces and Navarre, E.
The local fueros of the various districts slowly yielded before the superior force of imperialism; and only those of Navarre and the Basque provinces (see Basques) have had sufficient vitality to enable them to survive to comparatively modern times.
In consequence, however, of the Carlist rising of 1873-1876, the Basque fueros were finally extinguished in 1876.
ARNAULD DE OIHENART (1592-1668), Basque historian and poet, was born at Mauleon, and studied law at Bordeaux, where he took his degree in 1612.
His collection of over five hundred Basque proverbs, Atsotizac edo Refravac, included in a volume of his poems O Ce " Gastaroa Nevrthizetan, printed in Paris in 1657, was supplemented by a second collection, Atsotizen Vrrhenquina.
See Julien Vinson, Essai d'une bibliographic de la langue basque (Paris, 1891); J.
In the spring of the following year he gave up his seat at the admiralty on being appointed to the command of the Channel Fleet; and in that capacity he witnessed the partial, and prevented the total, destruction of the French fleet in Basque Roads, on the 12th of April 1809.
For all that known dialects prove to the contrary, on the one hand, there may have been one primitive language, from which the descendant languages have varied so widely, that neither their words nor their formation now indicate their unity in long past ages, while, on the other hand, the primitive tongues of mankind may have been numerous, and the extreme unlikeness of such languages as Basque, Chinese, Peruvian, Hottentot and Sanskrit may arise from absolute independence of origin.