(Report on the Experiments made with the Bashforth Chronograph, &c., 1865-1870; Final Report, &c., 1878-1880; The Bashforth Chronograph, Cambridge, 1890).
Abandoning therefore all a priori theoretical assumption, Bashforth set to work to measure experimentally the velocity of shot and the resistance of the air by means of equidistant electric screens furnished with vertical threads or wire, and by a chronograph which measured the instants of time at which the screens were cut by a shot flying nearly horizontally.
For a projectile in which the ogival head is struck with a radius of 2 diameters, Bashforth puts K= o 975; on the other hand, for a flat-headed projectile, as required at proof-butts, = 1 .
Lastly, to allow for the superior centering of the shot obtainable with the breech-loading system, Bashforth introduces a factor a, called the coefficient of steadiness.
By Hugh Brown), The True Principles of Gunnery (1777); Didion, Helie, Hugoniot, Vallier, Baills, &c., Balistique (French); Siacci, Balistica (Italian) Mayevski, Zabudski, Balistique (Russian); La Llave, 011ero, Mata, &c., Balistica (Spanish); Bashforth, The Motion of Projectiles (1872); The Bashforth Chronograph (1890); Ingalls, Exterior and Interior Ballistics, Handbook of Problems in Direct and Indirect Fire; Bruff, Ordnance and Gunnery; Cranz, Compendium der Ballistik (1898); The Official Text-Book of Gunnery (1902); Charbonnier, Balistique (1905); Lissak, Ordnance and Gunnery (1907).