Those of the Circassians in Bashan, Ammon and Moab.
At the period of the Israelite conquest the portion of Gilead northward of the Jabbok (Zerka) belonged to the dominions of Og, king of Bashan, while the southern half was ruled by Sihon, king of the Amorites, having been at an earlier date wrested from Moab (Numb.
BASHAN, a region lying E.
33, the tribes after the rout of Sihon, king of the Amorites, turned to go by the land of Bashan; and its king, Og, met them at Edrei, and was there defeated and slain.
II) are regarded as suggestive of legend; to say nothing of the lateness of all the documents relating to the wars of Og, and the remoteness of Bashan from the regions of the Israelites' wandering.
The story, however, had so firm a hold on Hebrew tradition that it can hardly fail to have some basis in fact; and an invasion by Israel of Bashan before coming to Jordan is by no means an improbability.
One of the cities of refuge, Golan, was in Bashan (Deut.
By Solomon, Bashan, or rather " the region of Argob in Bashan," containing " threescore great cities with walls and brazen bars," was assigned to the administrative district of Ben-Geber, one of his lieutenants (1 Kings iv.
The boundaries of Bashan may to some extent be deduced from the indications afforded in the earlier historical books.
6.3) enumerates four provinces of Bashan, Gaulanitis, Trachonitis, Auranitis and Batanaea.
All the so-called " giant cities of Bashan " without exception are now known to be Greco-Roman, not earlier than the time of Herod, and, though in themselves of very high architectural and historical interest, have no connexion whatever with the more ancient periods.
This fact somewhat weakens the various identifications that have been proposed for the cities of Bashan enumerated by name.
In the later history Bashan became remarkable as a refuge for outlaws and robbers, a character it still retains.
The physical characteristics of Bashan are noteworthy.
Porter, Five Years in Damascus (2 vols., 1855); The Giant Cities of Bashan (out of date, but some of the descriptions good, 1865); J.
From this their original territory they had been in their turn expelled by Sihon, king of the Amorites, who was said to have been found by the Israelites, after their deliverance from Egypt, in possession of both Gilead and Bashan, that is, of the whole country on the left bank of the Jordan, lying to the north of the Arnon (Num.
" The cedars of Lebanon, the oaks of Bashan, the forest of Jordan represent the national might of the heathen kingdoms " (Wellh., Die Kl.
Till the period of the Roman occupation it was subdivided into independent provinces or kingdoms, different at different times (such as Philistia, Canaan, Judah, Israel, Bashan, &c.), but never united under one collective designation.
Two great rivers, the Yarmuk (Hieromax) and the Zerka (Jabbok), divide Eastern Palestine into three sections, namely Hauran (Bashan, q.v.) with the Jaulan west of it; Jebel Ajlun (Gilead, q.v.); and the Belk'a (the southern portion of Gilead and the ancient territory of the tribe of Reuben).
Freshficld, Travels in the Central Caucasus and Bashan (1869); Parrot, Reise zum Ararat (1834); Wagner, Reise nach dem Ararat (1848); Abich, Die Besteigung des Ararat (1849); articles "Ararat," in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, and the Encyclopaedia Biblica.