In the Willamette Valley the soils are mostly clay loams, of a basaltic nature on the foothills and greatly enriched in the river bottom lands by washings from the hills and by deposits of rich black humus.
The rocks are mainly basalts and andesites, together with trachytes and phonolites, and some of the basaltic flows are of enormous extent.
Above Deir, where lie the ruins of Halebiya, the river breaks through a basaltic dike, el-I;Iamme, some 300 to 500 ft.
The town is indeed surrounded by basaltic rocks, the largest of them being the Radelstein (2460 ft.), from which a fine view is obtained.
Ansariya, which presently springs up into a high chain of Jurassic limestone with basaltic intrusions, whose peaks rise to 10,000 ft.
This iron is considered by several of the first authorities"on the subject to be of meteoric origin,' but no evidence hitherto given seems to prove decisively that it cannot be telluric. That the nodules found were lying on gneissic rock, with no basaltic rocks in the neighbourhood, does not prove that the iron may not originate from basalt, for the nodules may have been transported by the glaciers, like other erratic blocks, and will stand erosion much longer than the basalt, which may long ago have disappeared.
Its northern shores are bordered by the beautiful basaltic cones of the Bakony mountains, the volcanic soil of which produces grapes yielding excellent wine; the southern consist partly of a marshy plain, partly of downs.
A remarkable feature in the volcanic phenomena was the disruption of the basaltic plateaus by large bosses of gabbro and of various granitoid rocks.
Deep, with steep walls of basaltic and kindred rocks.
The spurs consist in some cases of white chalk covering the limestone, and on the south there are several basaltic outbreaks.
In New South Wales lode tin occurs principally in the granite and stream tin under the basaltic country in the extreme north of the state, at Tenterfield, Emmaville, Tingha, and in other districts of New England.
Its sides show fine basaltic formation in places.
Amongst the places of interest round Marienbad is the basaltic rock of Podhorn (2776 ft.), situated about 3 m.
GONDAR, properly Guendar, a town of Abyssinia, formerly the capital of the Amharic kingdom, situated on a basaltic ridge some 7500 ft.
The exterior is covered with black and white marble; the interior is of grey limestone with bands of a dark basaltic stone.
Ejections of basaltic lava have been observed on the southern slope vo of this range, extending over wide areas on the plateau itself, over a stretch of more than 600 m.
Basaltic lavas are reported to have been found in the Aldan region.
In the islet of Lele, close to Kusaie, at the eastern extremity of Micronesia, the ruins present the appearance of a citadel with cyclopean ramparts built of large basaltic blocks.
The whole island is strewn with natural basaltic prisms, some of great size; and of this material, brought by boats or rafts from a distance of 30 m.
M., have all been built up out of the shallow waters of the lagoon round about the entrance of the harbour, with high sea-walls composed of the same huge basaltic prisms. In some places the walls of this "Pacific Venice" are now submerged to some depth, as if the land had subsided since the construction of these extensive works.
This basaltic hill, the name of which is believed to commemorate the British king Arthur, who from its height is said to have watched the defeat of the Picts by his followers, is shaped like a lion couchant, with head towards the north.
Wide, the Elbe carves a path through the basaltic mass of the Mittelgebirge, churning its way through a deep, narrow rocky gorge.
Jessup, rediscovered, at Hamah (Hamath) on Orontes, five basaltic blocks bearing pictographic inscriptions in relief, one of which had been reported by J.
It lies in a hilly district rich in coal and iron, while a hard basaltic intrusion known as Rowley rag is largely quarried.
It is very picturesquely situated on the basaltic peninsula of Ramore Head, with a deep bay on either side, and a harbour protected by the natural breakwater known as the Skerries.
Bloodstone is not very widely distributed, but is found in the basaltic rocks of the Isle of Rum in the west of Scotland, and in a few other localities.
To the south lies a rolling plateau of basaltic formation (with the sacred town of Multai, and the springs of the river Tapti at its highest point), extending over the whole of the southern face of the district, and finally merging into the wild and broken line of the Ghats, which lead down to the plains.
The rocks in the Arakan range and its spurs are metamorphic, and comprise clay, slates, ironstone and indurated sandstone; towards the S., ironstone, trap and rocks of basaltic character are common; veins of steatite and white fibrous quartz are also found.
Kerguelen Island is of undoubted volcanic origin, the prevailing rock being basaltic lavas, intersected occasionally by dikes, and an active volcano and hot springs are said to exist in the south-west of the island.
Osteolite is a white earthy phosphorite occurring in the clefts of basaltic rocks, named in 1851 by J.
Basalts and Tertiary brown coal deposits enter into the composition of the southern extremity of Bennett Island, and the mountains of Sannikov Land, seen by Toll, have the aspect of basaltic "table mountains."
In height; beneath these is a mass of coarse black amygdaloid, of the same thickness, underlain by a second range of basaltic pillars, from 40 to 50 ft.
The most remarkable cliffs are those formed of perpendicular basaltic columns, extending for many miles, and most strikingly displayed in Fair Head and the celebrated Giant's Causeway.
From the coast, and of similar basaltic and limestone formation to that of the mainland.
==Geology== On entering the county at the south, a scarped barrier of hills is seen beyond the Lagan valley, marking the edge of the basaltic plateaus, and running almost continuously round the coast to Red Bay.
Faulting, probably in Pliocene times, lowered the basaltic plateaus to form the basin of Lough Neagh, leaving the eastern scarp at heights ranging up to 1800 ft.
The country generally is of sandstone or granite formation, with occasional trachyte and basaltic ranges.
From the nearest member of this group. Unlike the majority of the islands in this region, it is without coral reefs, but rises abruptly with steep and rugged cliffs of dark basaltic lava.
DIARBEKR' (Kara Amid or Black Amid; the Roman Amida), the chief town of a vilayet of Asiatic Turkey, situated on a basaltic plateau on the right bank of the Tigris, which here flows in a deep open valley.
At Trezza, on the eastern base of the mountain, basaltic rocks occur associated with fossiliferous Pliocene clays.
Varieties of basaltic lava and tuff containing little or no olivine - the rock type known as labradorite.
(It is to be remembered, however, that the standard width of a Roman highroad in the neighbourhood of Rome itself is about 14 ft.) They are uniformly paved with large polygonal blocks of hard basaltic lava, fitted very closely together, though now in many cases marked with deep ruts from the passage of vehicles in ancient times.
The lignites of Hesse, Cassel, &c., are interstratified with basaltic lava-flows which form the greater part of the Vogelsbarg and other hills.
On the west the most notable cliffs south of those of Cape Wrath and the Cambrian sandstones of Sutherland are to be found among the basaltic islands, particularly in Skye, where a magnificent range of precipices rising to moo ft.
In three leaps, and an enormous basaltic lava-stream, which crosses the face of the mountain in a north-easterly direction.
Canna (pop. 49), an island of basaltic rock, is situated about io m.
Sanday (pop. 44), another basaltic island, lies close to the S.E.
It is in the main basaltic, but a band of quartz-porphyry runs from the centre in a north-westerly direction to the coast, and there is some oolitic rock on the north shores.
It is almost wholly basaltic, but has some oolite at the head of the bay on its north side.
The enormous mass of basaltic rock known as the Deccan Trap is of great importance in the geological structure of the Indian Peninsula.
They form some of the most striking physical features of the Peninsula, many of the most prominent hill ranges having been carved out of the basaltic flows.
Wide, and its finely-marked basaltic cone rises to a height of 1030 ft.
The importance of Tharros may be inferred from the extent of its necropolis, which lies on the basaltic peninsula of S.
On the plateau itself the sandstone is generally overlaid by the Deccan trap, a blackish-coloured basaltic rock of volcanic origin, the high level tableland having been formed by a succession of lava flows, the valleys of Central India being merely "denudation hollows" carved out by the action of rain and rivers.
It is apparently the northern limit of what was once a vast basaltic plain stretching from Goona to Belgaum, "one of the most gigantic outpourings of volcanic matter in the world."
Two systems. At the close of the Cretaceous period great eruptions of basalt and basaltic tuff took place, especially in the Lisbon area.
In the Rajmahal Hills basaltic lava flows are interbedded with the Gondwana deposits, and in the Karharbari coalfield the Gondwana beds are traversed by dikes of mica-peridotite and basalt, which are supposed to be of the same age as the Rajmahal lavas.
Where the streams cut their way through sheets of basaltic lava their banks are steep, almost vertical cliffs, but where they cut through sedimentary rocks the sides have a more gentle slope.
The chief occurrences of metallic iron are as minute spiculae disseminated through basaltic rocks, as at Giant's Causeway and in the Auvergne, and, more particularly, in meteorites (q.v.).
The old town occupies the slopes of a basaltic hill (420 ft.
In width, which affords a capacious and safe harbour for large ships; but basaltic cliffs, 1500 ft.
East of the Buttauf extends the basaltic plateau called Sahel el Ahma ("the inaccessible plain"), rising 1700 ft.
The plains of Esdraelon, and the Buttauf, and the plateau of el-Ahma are all remarkable for the rich basaltic soil which covers them, in which corn, cotton, maize, sesame, tobacco, millet and various kinds of vegetable are grown, while indigo and sugar-cane were cultivated in former times.
Immediately west of the watershed are two small plateaus covered with basaltic debris, near el-Jish and Kades.
The high tableland of the Balaghat lies for the most part upon the great basaltic formation which stretches across the Satpuras as far east as Jubbulpore.