The existing procedure was simplified and accelerated; the working of the courts was greatly improved by a carefully organized system of inspection and control; the incompetent judges were eliminated and replaced by men of better education and higher moral character; and for the future supply of wellqualified judges, barristers, and law officials, an excellent school of law was established.
They preferred an unwritten law, as Prutz suggests, partly because it suited the barristers (who often belonged to the baronage, for the Frankish nobles were "great pleaders in court and out of court"), and partly because the high court was left unbound so long as there was no written code.
In an act of 1859 the practice was thrown open to barristers and to attorneys and solicitors.
In England red vestments are worn at the mass (of the Holy Spirit) attended by the Roman Catholic judges and barristers at the opening of term, the so-called "Red Mass."
The election judges appoint a number of barristers, not exceeding five, as commissioners to try such petitions.
Judges of appeal are appointed by the king for life from lists of eligible barristers prepared by the senate and the courts.
Lord Lee's second son, Sir George Lockhart (c. 1630-1689), was lord-advocate in Cromwell's time, and was celebrated for his persuasive eloquence; in 1674, when he was disbarred for alleged disrespect to the court of session in advising an appeal to parliament, fifty barristers showed their sympathy for him by withdrawing from practice.
In English legal phraseology "devil" and "devilling" are used of barristers who act as substitutes for others.
In the London Inns of Court the senior barristers used to be called "ancients."
By the 17th century it had given place in ordinary civil life to the brimmed hat; but in various shapes it still survives as official head-gear in many European countries: the Barett, worn in church by the Lutheran clergy, in the courts by German lawyers, and by the deans and rectors of the universities, the barrette of French judges and barristers, the "black cap" of the English judge, and the "college cap" familiar in English and American universities, and vulgarly known as the "mortar-board."
Advocates took the place of barristers, and proctors of solicitors.
About fifty censors were employed, comprising naval officers (appointed by the Admiralty), military censors (appointed by the War Office), and civilians, including ex-civil servants, barristers and journalists.