But a dispute between the king and the parliament concerning the form of the royal oath having arisen, a group of demagogues with criminal folly provoked disturbances and erected barricades (May 14th).
On the Day of the Barricades (May 12, 1588) Henry III.
Paris at once rose in revolta Paris of swarming and unpoliced streets, that had been making French history ever since the reign of Henry IV., and that had not forgotten the barricades of the League.
Events followed each other quickly; the day of the barricades was followed by the peace of Ruel, the peace of Ruel by the arrest of the princes, by the battle of Rethel, and Mazarin's exile to Briihl before the union of the two Frondes.
A palace was sacked, barricades were ~rected and for forty-eight hours the troops under General Bava-Beccaris, notwithstanding the employment of artillery, were unable to restore order.
Barricades were thrown up in the principal streets, and the surrounding houses were occupied by the insurgents.
The populace, led by an Amalfi fisherman, known as Masaniello, obtained arms, erected barricades, and, while professing loyalty to the king of Spain, demanded the removal of the oppressive taxes and murdered many of the nobles.
A few shots were fired - it is not known who fired first - on the 15th, the Swiss regiments 'stormed the barricades and street fighting lasted all day.
His constant theme was, that the party disputes were a struggle for power between the forces of revolution, which derived their strength from the fighters on the barricades, and the Christian monarchy, and that between these opposed principles no compromise was possible.
The Neapolitans reached Bologna on the 17th of May, but in the meantime a dispute had broken out at Naples between the king and parliament as to the nature of the royal oath; a cry of treason was raised by a group of factious youngsters, barricades were erected and street fighting ensued (May Is).
The king refused to open parliament unless the barricades were removed, and while the moderate elements attempted to bring about conciliation, the ministry acted with great weakness.
After the "day of the barricades" (the 12th of May 1588), the king, perceiving that his influence was lost, resolved to rid himself of Guise by assassination; and on the 23rd of December 1588 his faithful bodyguard, the "forty-five," carried out his design at the château of Blois.
Barricades were erected and the town finally surrendered unconditionally after a severe bombardment (June 1848).
Variously estimated at from 30,000 to 60,000 men, well armed and organized, they had entrenched themselves at every step behind formidable barricades, and were ready to avail themselves of every advantage that ferocity and despair could suggest to them.
The king, having succeeded in taking refuge at Chartres, ended, however, by granting him in the Act of Union all that he had refused in face of the barricades the post of lieutenant-general of the kingdom and the proscription of Protestantism.