Rubra, and is often employed for building and for flour-barrels and cask-staves.
The city's principal manufactures are beet sugar, barrels and other cooperage products, wagons, carriages, sleighs and agricultural implements.
The nodules from the "blue earth" have to be freed from matrix and divested of their opaque crust, which can be done in revolving barrels containing sand and water.
In 1884; in 1883 the output was only L7,632 barrels, four years later it was 5,022,632 barrels, and in 1896 it was 23,941,169 barrels, or 39% of the total output in the United States.
For the next ten years, however, there was a decrease, and in 1908 the output had fallen to 10,858,797 barrels, of which 6,748,676 barrels (valued at $6,861,885) was obtained in the Lima district, 4,109,935 barrels (valued at $7,315,667) from the southeast district, and 186 barrels (valued at $950), suitable for lubricating purposes, from the Mecca-Belden district in Trumbull and Lorain counties.
The quantity of Portland cement made in Ohio increased from 57,000 barrels in 1890 to 563,113 barrels in 1902 and to 1,521,764 barrels in 1908.
Ohio, in 1908, produced 3,4 2 7,47 8 barrels of salt valued at $864,710.
This well yielded 25 barrels a day for some time, but at the end of the year the output was at the rate of 15 barrels.
The production of crude petroleum in the United States was officially reported to have been 2000 barrels in 1859, 4,215,000 barrels in 1869, 19,914,146 barrels in 1879, 35,163,513 barrels in 1889, 57,084,428 barrels in 1899, and 126,493,936 barrels in 1906.
From Oil Creek, development spread first over the eastern United States and then became general, subsequently embracing Canada (1862), recently discovered fields being those of Illinois, Alberta and California (44,854,737 barrels in 1908).
Long, with an upright board and a reservoir at one end, from which they obtained as much as 200 barrels per year by stirring the sands with a pole."
Taking these figures as a basis, the total yield of oil from an acre of petroliferous territory would be a little over 5000 barrels of 42 U.S. gallons.
In Russia, until 1875, the crude oil was carried in barrels on Persian carts known as " arbas."
In America, crude petroleum was at first transported in iron-hooped barrels, holding from 40 to 42 American gallons, which were carried by teamsters to Oil Creek and the Allegheny River, where they were loaded on boats, these being floated down stream whenever sufficient water was present - a method leading to much loss by collision and grounding.
Bulk barges were soon introduced on the larger rivers, but the use of these was partially rendered unnecessary by the introduction of railways, when the oil was at first transported in barrels on freight cars, but later in tank-cars.
Tanks of various types are employed in storing the oil, those at the wells being circular and usually made of wood, with a content of 250 barrels and upwards.
High, with slightly conical wooden roofs covered with sheet iron; their capacity is 35,000 barrels, and they are placed upon the carefully levelled ground without any foundation.
The barrels employed in the transport of petroleum products are made of well-seasoned white-oak staves bound by six or eight iron hoops.
In the earlier refineries the stills, the capacity of which varied from 25 to 80 barrels, usually consisted of a vertical cylinder, constructed of castor wrought-iron, with a boiler-plate bottom and a cast-iron dome, on which the " goose-neck " was bolted.
The Jennings field, one of the greatest in the United States, produced up to and including 1907 more than 26,000,000 barrels of high-grade oil, twelve-thirteenths of which came from an area of only 50 acres, one well producing a tenth of the entire output.
In 1907 the state produced 5,000,221 barrels of petroleum, valued at $4,063,033.
The exports, which show plainly the prevailing agricultural character of the country, are flour, wheat, cattle, beef, barley, pigs, wine in barrels, horses and maize.
The action is essentially that -of the common suction pump. The construction was subsequently improved by many experimenters, notably by Boyle, Hawksbee, Smeaton and others; and more recently two pump barrels were employed, so obtaining the same degree of exhaustion much more rapidly.
Both fixed and rotating vats are employed, the chlorination proceeding more rapidly in the latter case; rotating barrels are sometimes used.
In the Thies process, used in many districts in the United States, the vats are rotating barrels made, in the later forms, of iron lined with lead, and provided with a filter formed of a finely perforated leaden grating running from one end of the barrel to the other, and rigidly held in place by wooden frames.
Vancouver lies in a region of extensive forests and of fruitgrowing and farming lands; among its manufactures are lumber products, barrels, condensed milk, flour, beer and canned f_uit.
The chief industry is the cultivation of oysters in four large beds in the Mare Piccolo; besides oysters, Taranto carries on a large trade in cozze, a species of large black mussel, which is packed in barrels with a special sauce.
It has various industries, including saw and planing mills, shipbuilding, glassworks and factories for wood-pulp, barrels and potato flour; and an active trade in exporting timber, ice, wood-pulp and granite, chiefly to Great Britain, and in importing from the same country coal and salt.
Other papers which had been left to Fox lay for years in barrels in a stable garret; they were finally cleared out, their owner, Mary Fox, intending to send them to a paper mill.
The rock was found in much greater quantities at Rosendale, in Ulster county, in 1823, and the amount of this cement produced by New York rose to 4,689,167 barrels in 1899; the state is still the chief producer but only 947,929 barrels were made in 1908.
Limestone and clay suitable for making Portland cement are also found in Ulster county and elsewhere, and the production of this increased from 65,000 Barrels in 1890 to 2,290,955 barrels in 1908.
For a number of years prior to 1893 Michigan was the leading salt-producing state, and, though her output was subsequently (except in 1901) exceeded by that of New York, it continued to increase up to 1905, when it was 9,492,173 barrels; in 1907, the product was 10,786,630 barrels.
Marl is found in the south part of the state; limestone most largely in the north part of the lower peninsula, and the east part of the upper peninsula; and the production of Portland cement increased rapidly from 77,000 barrels in 1898 to 3,572,668 in 1907.
The product increased from 76,295 barrels in 1887 to above 800,000 in the early 'nineties;, it fell thereafter, averaging about 493,269 barrels from 1899 to 1903; in 1905 the yield was 376,238 barrels; and in 1907,.
After the must has been allowed to rest for some hours in order to effect a partial clearing, it is drawn off into barrels and fermented in the latter.
Their consumption increased from 4,250,000 to 35,671,000 barrels between 1900 and 1905, and the value of the product in 1905 was $8,201,846.
Brooklyn is also an important place for the milling of coffee and spices (the 1905 product was valued at $15,274,092), the building of small boats, and the manufacture of foundry and machine shop products, malt liquors, barrels, shoes, chemicals, paints, cordage, twine, and hosiery and other knitted goods.
Besides the making of boxes and barrels and other articles necessarily Involved in its sugar and tobacco trade, Havana also, to some extent, builds carriages and small ships, and manufactures iron and machinery; but the weight of taxation during the Spanish period was always a heavy deterrent on the development of any business requiring great capital.
In 1902 it was only 200 barrels, nearly all of which came from Litchfield, Montgomery county (where oil had been found in commercial quantities in 1886), and Washington, Tazewell county, in the west central part of the state; at this time it was used locally for lubricating purposes.
In 1905 the total output of the state was 181,084 barrels; in 1906 the amount increased to 4,397,050 barrels, valued at $3,274,818; and in 1907, according to state reports, the output was 24,281,973 barrels, being nearly as great as that of the Appalachian field.
Grand Rapids manufactures carpet sweepers - a large proportion of the whole world's product, - flour and grist mill products, foundry and machine-shop products, planing-mill products, school seats, wood-working tools, fly paper, calcined plaster, barrels, kegs, carriages, wagons, agricultural implements and bricks and tile.
The principal exports are wines, cereals, olive-oil, cotton goods, soap, cigarette-paper, furniture and barrels, boots, shoes and leather goods, and machinery.