In December 1352 Clement died, and his successor, Innocent VI., anxious to strike a blow at the baronial rulers of Rome, and seeing in the former tribune an excellent tool for this purpose, pardoned and released his prisoner.
At the verge of the rock on the western side is the old baronial castle, erected by King John in 1185, which was the residence of the bishops till the 14th century.
This was settled in May 1213, and in the new prelate, the papal nominee, Stephen Langton, who landed in England and absolved the king in the following July, the baronial party found an able and powerful ally.
But before this event John had instituted a great inquiry, the inquest of service of June 1212, for the purpose of finding out how much he could exact from each of his vassals, a measure which naturally excited some alarm; and then, fearing a baronial rising, he had abandoned his proposed expedition into Wales, had taken hostages from the most prominent of his foes, and had sought safety in London.
Arbitration under such conditions was contemptuously rejected, and after the king had ordered the sheriffs to seize the lands and goods of the revolting nobles, London opened its gates and peacefully welcomed the baronial army.
Doubtless this had been drawn up beforehand, and was brought by the baronial leaders to Runnimede; possibly it was identical with the document presented to the royal ministers at Brackley a few weeks before.
1600) of Althorp, Northamptonshire, who claimed descent from the baronial family of Despenser.
Three miles east of Stranraer is Lochinch, the residence of the earl of Stair, a modern structure in the Scots Baronial style.
Three miles south of Beauly is Beaufort Castle, the chief seat of the Lovats, a fine modern mansion in the Scottish baronial style.
The county buildings, in Buccleuch Street, are an imposing example of the Scots Baronial style.
Till 1243 the party of Frederick had been successful in retaining Tyre, and the baronial demand for a regency had remained without effect; but in that year the opposition, headed by the great family of Ibelin, succeeded, under cover of asserting the rights of Alice of Cyprus to the regency, in securing possession of Tyre, and the kingdom of Jerusalem thus fell back into the power of the baronage.
But in 1258 this Humphrey fell away, like his father, from the royal to the baronial cause.
The baronial house of Beauchamp of Bedford was founded at the Conquest by Hugh de Beauchamp, who received a barony in Bedfordshire.
The modern castle, in the Scottish Baronial style, 12 m.
Distinct rank was accorded to aldermen, and in the Liber Albus we are told that " it is a matter of experience that ever since the year of our Lord 1350, at the sepulture of aldermen, the ancient custom of interment with baronial honours was observed."
To the east of the remains of the bishop's palace are the ruins of the earl's palace, a structure in the Scottish Baronial style, built about 1600 for Patrick Stewart, 2nd earl of Orkney, and on his forfeiture given to the bishops for a residence.
Berkeley Castle, on an eminence south-east of the town, is one of the noblest baronial castles existing in England, and one of the few inhabited.
The O'Neills, always opposed to the English, had forfeited every baronial right; but in 1552 Hugh O'Neill of Clandeboye promised allegiance to the reigning monarch, and obtained the castle of Carrickfergus, the town and fortress of Belfast, and all the surrounding lands.
But he was ill-supported in his task of maintaining the Norman kingdom, faced with general apathy, and threatened by a baronial revolt, and, in addition, Richard Coeur-de-Lion, at Messina, 1190, threatened him with war.
Balfour Castle, a mansion in the Scottish Baronial style built in 1848, is situated near the south-western extremity of the island.
1659) and is a good example of the Scottish Baronial mansion with high-pitched roof and turreted angles.
The young king soon quarrelled with his father, who allowed him no power and a wholly inadequate revenue, and headed the great baronial revolt of 1173.
He sympathized with Montfort as with a friend of the Church and an unjustly treated man; but on the eve of the baronial revolution he was on friendly terms with the king.
N.W., was the birthplace of Sir Charles Lyell the geologist; and Cortachy castle, a fine mansion in the Scottish Baronial style, about 4 m.
The town hall in the Scottish Baronial style has a clock-tower 130 ft.
1235), leader of the baronial opposition against King John of England, belonged to the official aristocracy created by Henry I.
He was implicated in the baronial conspiracy of 1212.
He continued, however, to take the lead in the baronial agitation against the king, and upon the outbreak of hostilities was elected "marshal of the army of God and Holy Church" (1215).
The commune also tried to restrict the power of the barons, who, in the 13th century especially, though we find them feudatories of the holy see from the 10th century onwards, threatened to become masters of the whole territory, which is still dotted over with the baronial castles and lofty solitary towers of the rival families of Rome - Orsini, Colonna, Savelli, Conti, Caetani - who ruthlessly destroyed the remains of earlier edifices to obtain materials for their own, and whose castles, often placed upon the high roads, thus following a strategic line to a stronghold in the country, did not contribute to the undisturbed security of traffic upon them, but rather led to their abandonment.
During the Barons' War Thomas favoured Simon de Montfort and the baronial party.
In the 12th and 13th centuries the Lindsays and the earls of March and Dunbar were the chief baronial families.
The royal functions of which Henry was stripped were to be exercised by a series of baronial committees.
He offered to submit his case to Louis IX., the saintly king of France, whose virtues were known and respected all over Europe, if the baronial party would do the same.
Hence it came to pass that in the campaign of 264 Simon was supported by a minority only of the baronial class, and the The kings army was the larger.
For if the Provisions had established a government by baronial committees, the parliament of 1264 created one which was a mere party administration.
These, of course, would not form part of the baronial interest, and could not be distinguished from any other subjects of the crown.
There was never any serious danger, but the fact that under the new rgime baronial rebellion was possible, despite of all Williams advantages over other feudal kings, and despite of the fact that the rebels were hardly yet settled firmly into their new estates, had a sinister import for the future of England.
On his fidelity the king had to rely both for military aid in times of baronial revolt and for the collection of the money which formed the sinews of war.
It was the zenith of the power of the baronial anarchists, who moved from camo to camp with shameless rapidity, wresting from one or other of the two rival sovereigns some royal castle, or some dangerous grant of financial or judicial rights, at each change of allegiance.
There had been no serious civil war since the baronial rising of 1173.
Triumphed over baronial anarchy.
Two ties alone had for the last century held the duchy to the English connection: the one was that many Norman baronial families held lands on this side of the Channel; the second was the national pride which looked upon England as a conquered appendage of Normandy.