And the baronage, and married the heiress of the kingdom, Sibylla.
They preferred an unwritten law, as Prutz suggests, partly because it suited the barristers (who often belonged to the baronage, for the Frankish nobles were "great pleaders in court and out of court"), and partly because the high court was left unbound so long as there was no written code.
Raymund at once submitted to the pope, but the Crusade continued none the less, because, as Luchaire says," the baronage of the north and centre of France had finished their preparations,"and were resolved to annex the rich lands of the south.
During those fifteen years the kingdom of Jerusalem was agitated by a struggle between the native barons, championing the principle that sovereignty resided in the collective baronage, and taking their stand on the assizes, and Frederick II., claiming sovereignty for himself, and opposing to the assizes the feudal law of Sicily.
Already in 1267 St Louis had taken the cross a second time, moved by the news of Bibars' conquests; and though the French baronage, including even Joinville himself, refused to follow the lead of their king, Prince Edward of England imitated his example.
On the death of the Conqueror (1087) he secured the succession for William Rufus, in spite of the discontent of the Anglo-Norman baronage; and in 1088 his exhortations induced the English militia to fight on the side of the new sovereign against Odo of Bayeux and the other partisans of Duke Robert.
Doyle's Official Baronage of England (1886), the Complete Peerage of G.
Henry was disliked but feared by the baronage, towards whom he showed gross bad faith in his disregard of his coronation promises.
But the marriage proved childless, and the empress Matilda was designated as her father's successor, the English baronage being compelled to do her homage both in 1126, and again, after the Angevin marriage, in 1131.
Dugdale, Baronage (1675-1676) and Warwickshire (2nd ed., 1730); G.
It was often the policy of kings to increase the social privileges and legal exemptions of the nobility while taking away all political power, so that it is necessary in the history of institutions to distinguish sharply between these nobilities and the feudal baronage proper.
It is only in certain backward parts of Europe that the terms feudal and baronage in any technical sense can be used of the nobility of the 15th century.
Dugdale, The Baronage of England (London, 1675-1676); R.
Doyle's Official Baronage of England, ii.
The work of Father Anselme, his collaborators and successors, is even more important for the history of France than is Dugdale's Baronage of England for the history of England.
Later, when this plan had fallen through, he was endowed with castles, revenues and lands on both sides of the channel; the vacant earldom of Cornwall was reserved for him (1175); he was betrothed to Isabella the heiress of the earldom of Gloucester (1176); and he was granted the lordship of Ireland with the homage of the Anglo-Irish baronage (1177).
By his divorce from Isabella of Gloucester he offended the English baronage (1200); by his marriage with Isabella of Angouleme, the betrothed of Hugh of Lusignan, he gave an opportunity to the discontented Poitevins for invoking French assistance and to Philip Augustus for pronouncing against him a sentence of forfeiture.
Further, since the grantees as a rule naturally sent their sons into the service of their own lords, such grants tended to become hereditary, and in them we have the origin of the baronage of the middle ages.
On the publication of the ill-considered bargain the baronage at length took vigorous action.
He next appeared on English soil in 1149 1 when he came to court the help of Scotland and the English baronage against King Stephen.
His government was stern; he over-rode the privileges of the baronage without regard to precedent; he persisted in keeping large districts under the arbitrary and vexatious jurisdiction of the forest-courts.
Dugdale's most important works are Antiquities of Warwickshire (1656); Monasticon Anglicanum (1655-1673); History of St Paul's Cathedral (1658); and Baronage of England (1675-1676).
These very facts commended him to the more turbulent section of the baronage; if he succeeded to the whole of the Conquerors heritage they would have every opportunity of enjoying freedom from all governance.
Before he had been six months on the throne he was attacked by a league comprising more than half the baronage, and headed by his uncles, bishop Odo of Bayeux and, Robert of Mortain.
His rule was expensive, and he made himself hated by every class of his subjects, baronage, clergy and people alike, by his ingenious and oppressive taxation.
In dealing with the baronage Ranulf and his master extorted excessive and arbitrary reliefs whenever land passed in succession to heirs.
N9 one yet openly withstood him, but he was well aware that his position was precarious, and that the claims of Matilda would he brought forward ere long by the section of the baronage which had not yet got from him all they desired.
But in 1138 the crisis came; the baronage had tried the capacity of their new master and found him wanting.
Of the baronage, looking back to the boisterons times of Stephen with regret, was reserving itself for a favorable opportunity.
In England the younger Henry had built himself up a party among the more turbulent section of the baronage, who remembered with regret and longing the carnival of licence which their fathers had enjoyed under King Stephen.
Fot precisely the same reason all classes in England, save the more turbulent section of the baronage, remained faithful to the eldei king.
Among the baronage hardly a man would commit himself to treason.
But the ministers recognized John, and the baronage and nation acquiesced, though with little enthusiasm.
Of general constitutional rights; to a large extent it is a mere recapitulation of the claims of the baronage, and gives redress for their feudal grievances in the matters of aids, reliefs, wardships, &c., its object being the repression of arbitrary exactions by the king on his tenants-in-chief.
His greatest fault in the eyes of his subjects was his love of foreigners; since John had lost Normandy the English baronage had become as national in spirit as the commons.
All through these twenty-six years he was being opposed and criticised by a party which embraced the wisest and most patriotic section of the baronage and the hierarchy.
He not only obtained it, but to the great indignation of the English baronage married the kings sister Eleanor in 1238.
It was over this Sicilian scheme, the crowning folly of the king, that public opinion at last grew so hot that the intermittent criticism and grumbling of the baronage and the nation passed into vigorous and masterful action.
There was a point beyond which it was unwise to provoke the baronage or the commons, and, unlike his flighty and thriftless father, he knew where that point came.
The baronage were angry and suspicious, for many of their customary rights rested on immemorial and unchartered antiquity, while others were usurpations from the weakness of John or Henry III.
It was very acceptable to the baronage, who had suffered, on a smaller scale, the same grievance as the king, for when their subtenants transferred estates to the church, they (like their masters) suffered a permanent loss of feudal revenue.
King John and his baronage, relying on the fact that such evocation of cases to a superior, court had never before been known, refused to allow that it was valid.
The alacrity with which the greater part of the baronage flocked in to do him homage confirmed him in the mistaken notion.
In February 1304 the regent Comyn and most of the ~ottish baronage submitted, on the promise that they should retain their lands on doing homage.
The land seemed for a time to be settling down, and indeed the baronage were to such a large extent English in both blood and feeling, that there was no insuperable difficulty in conciliating them.
It was of course impossible that the nation or the baronage 5hould accept such a preposterous rgime, and Edward was soon involved in.
On this Thomas of Lancaster and the more resolute of his associates took arms, but the majority both of the baronage and of the commons remained quiescent, public opinion being rather with than against the king.
When she landed with her son in Essex in September 1326, she was at once joined by Henry of Lancaster, the heir of Earl Thomas, and most of the baronage of the eastern counties.
Yet they continued to multiply, and exercised at times considerable influence; though they had few supporters among the baronage, yet among the lesser gentry and still more among the burgher class and in the universities they were strong.
But Richard wds tactless; he openly flouted his two uncles, John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock, and took no pains to conciliate either the baronage or the commons.
1-lenry of Lancaster came to the throne, for all intents and purposes as an elective king; he had to depend for the future on his ability to conciliate and satisfy the baronage PsltIan of and the commons by his governance.
But the leading men among the baronage were undoubtedly swayed by ambition and resentment, by family ties and family feuds, far more than by enlightened statesmanship or zeal for the king or the commonweal.
The factions were fairly balanced, for if the majority of the baronage were, on the whole, Lancastrian, the greatest houses stood by the cause of York.
It fell heavily upon the baronage and their retainers, but passed lightly, for the most part, over the heads of the middle classes.
The later representative of the house of Lancaster was fortunate, however, in having less formidable enemies than the earlier; the power of the baronage had been shaken by the Wars of the R~ses no less than the power of the crown; so many old estates had passed rapidly from hand to hand, so many old titles were represented by upstarts destitute of local influence, that the feudal danger had become far less.
His instruments were ministers of ability chosen from the clergy and the gentryhe seems to have been equally averse to trusting the baronage at the one end of the social scale, or mere upstarts at the other, and it is notable that no one during his reign can be called a court favorite.
Bitter as was the long quarrel, it kept the Berkeleys from casting their interest into the Wars of the Roses, in which most of their fellows of the ancient baronage sank and disappeared.
Gairdner (2 vols., "Rolls Series," 24,1861); Calendar of Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII.; and Sir William Dugdale, The Baronage of England (London, 1675).